Introduction terms of population and third largest state

Introduction

Maharashtra is a second largest state in terms of population and third largest state in terms of the area in India1. That’s why Maharashtra becomes second largest constituency with the 48 seats in Lok Sabha out of 545 total seats. That makes Maharashtra’s politics important and sensitive itself in Maharashtra and nationally.  Recently in Maharashtra huge silent rallies organized by the Maratha community for demanding reservation. The nature of the rallies was to the silent but anger within the rallies clearly understand by popularity and the size of the rallies. On one hand constitution stands for the secularism and equal opportunity for all. Government is responsible for the removing the reservation into the India. But some communities start saying they are not progressive and come in the underprivileged category. That’s a really development problem in India because caste-based reservations will do nothing but damage the Indian economy eventually (Varun Parekh). This will, if not now then later on, definitely negatively impact the efficiency of the job. On a macro scale, this inefficiency can drag down India’s growth story2. In Maharashtra start demanding for the reservation first is to the Maratha community demanding for the OBC reservation and Dhangar community demanding for the ST reservation. For the study purpose I am focusing only on reservation demand of the Maratha community. This is also somehow emerging out of the incomplete statistical information provided by the previous government.

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Triggering event

Triggering event that causes to the rising demand for Maratha reservation. It is the 13th July 2016 Maratha girl rape and murder at Kopardi by Dalit men in Ahmednagar district. Initially when Maratha protest starts demanding to provide death penalty to the victim of the case.  Within that their certain demand raises amending the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act and implementation of the Swaminathan committee recommendations. Maratha community people start claiming about the misuse of the authorities prevention act from the Dalit community. One thing here noticeable is to the accused from the Dalit community and the victim form the Maratha community. That also makes stand to the community in front of each other directly. Then the statement Maratha community is a back word and Marathi student not able to get admission into the good educational institute but because of the reservation student from the low and backwards cast easily able get admission in the educational institution even they got fewer marks. That also same condition about the government job. Provide justice to the girl silent march start getting huge popular support from different regions of Maharashtra.

 

Different statistics provided by Government committee and Human Development Index on socio economic condition of Maratha Community. 

In 2014 when Congress- government passed the 16 % reservation based on the recommendation of the Narayan Rane committee. Entire findings of the report not available but Keshav Waghmare wrote in the Divya Marathi newspaper about the findings and claim of the report it surveys twelve and half thousands of the Maratha household lives under the poverty line. Only 80% of the student form the Maratha community able to get education until 10th class. Only 2% female and 6% able to use the computer. Percentage of a graduate female was to 6% and male 10%3.

(Amrish Dongre) On an average, Maratha household have higher income and lower poverty relative to the others with the expectation of the Brahman household they are also over-represented in government and public sector jobs and in white collar and professional occupations hence demand the inclusion of Marathas among other backward classes in untenable4.

When I read the above mentioned two different studies first study done by the Maharashtra government’s Narayan Rane committee for analyzing and assessing socio-economical and educational condition and second research study done by the Amrish Dongre based on the Human Development Index survey.  Based on the Narayan Rane committee report, on 25 Jun 2014, the Congress-NCP state government led by Prithviraj Chavan passed a law granting 16 per cent reservation to Marathas in education and employment. This did not infringe on the reservation quota of the Other Back words classes (OBC)5.    But in Maharashtra, 52% seats reserved for the different social and economic backward communities. If Maharashtra government provide the reservation that the reservation seats go on 52 to 68 plus 5% for the Muslims 73%.

After the 14 November, 2014: Bombay High Court’s interim order staying reservation for Maratha community in employment in Maharashtra6. Most of the political parties well aware of the 50% reservation limit. Only in the exceptional cases court will allow to cross the limit. In case of Maharashtra case 52% reservation already available. Backward castes in India are mainly those different communities which are known by the name of their traditional hereditary occupation7. Then why the Congress-NCP government pass reservation bill, and if they pass the reservation why they are unable to provide the strong evidence or data.  Based on this questions some leaders from the Congress Government got cheated under the various criminal activities. People of Maharashtra angry at the government. There was less possibility to again government come into the power for the next term.  To getting support from the Maratha and from the Muslim community pass the reservation.   

Only for breaking the unity among different social groups how come under the reservation category (Back word/lower class) and how not come under the reservation (High class) that are making the social insecurity among the large communities among Maharashtra. And there will be the chances of the cast riots Maybe the Bhima Koregoan was the resent example of the social insecurity the reason for the attack on the Dalit community and next day rally organized by the different Dalit parties in all over India and that rallies some of the places take a violent mode they burn buses, taxies and brake the glasses vehicles and burn the tires on the road   that will be the example of the breaking the social insecurity and showing the power of the community.

Framers of the Indian constitution made the provision of reservation for the bringing socially and economically back word classes into the mains streams. They consider the reservation period only for the ten years but after every ten years reservation period expanded only because of the political benefit. Also adding that provide the reservation for the Other Back word class-OBC.

Reservation for the polarization of the votes.

Reservation policy becomes a serious threat to the nation now. Meritorious students/candidates are losing jobs and opportunities due to this policy. Political pundits are the main culprits of this policy. They do not want the welfare of the people but they work only for their vote bank8. The Maratha social organization Sambhaji Brigade has announced that it will transform into a political party9.

My next argument is for getting the political benefit in the name of reservation all the major parties want to do polarization of the vote on the name of the caste. Because into the table110 mentioned post result survey done by the lokniti on the vote share of the different communities to the major parties. Hare can clearly understand the not a single party got a full support from any particular community. Vote share is divided. For playing the cast clienteles cast politics start breaking the unity among different communities of Maharashtra.     

One claim made by the Maratha protestant that is to the not any political party actively involved in the silent rallies. That’s made me think about this statement.

Table 1

NCP

CON

SS

BJP

Maratha Kunbi

18

11

30

24

OBC

20

13

18

38

SC

17

28

13

19

ST

16

14

9

33

Upper cast

10

16

9

52

Muslims

16

53

1

13

Other

13

18

17

32

 

The current government in Maharashtra in BJP – Siv Sena both of parties supporting the reservation but not passing the government. They are in ruling party, they can’t openly opposing the reservation. They aware of the sensitivity of the issue.  Also one strange about the Maratha politics is to the support from the Siv Sena party, Siv Sena supported the collation government in Maharashtra. When any problem raised into the Maharashtra that time Siv Sena party playing a role as opposition party instead provide support the Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP).   But after Devendra Fadanvis become a Chief Minister of the Maharashtra increase reservation demand.  When BJP Come to power after that Mumbai high court stops the 16% reservation of Maratha community.

The National Parties include Indian National Congress 42 (INC), Bharatiya Janata Party 122 (BJP), Nationalist Congress Party 41 (NCP), the regional parties include Shiv Sena 63 (SHS) and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena 1 (MNS).  This all major political parties that have strong political influence into Maharashtra (2014 assembly election result).  In the paper, I try to understand the how this political parties response to the reservation issue. What are their stand on this.

 

Conclusion

One fact is true about the there is some weaker section among the Maratha community lives into the socially and educationally backward life. This pat of this community doing the agricultural and labour work. In a last one decade because of the natural uncertainty and drought they received less agricultural returns. That’s why the community starts feeling their economic condition not different from the people who revive the reservation. Also because of the low income they are not able to pay the fees of the higher education for their children.  That’s the point they start thinking if they also come into reservation category their child also able to learn in higher education institute and also able to get a good position in a government job. With the unknowing the original reality.  1. Cast based reservation not possible 50% limit. 2. If the government decide to provide the reservation based on the economic backwardness there is big question whom to call the backward. 3. If they got reservation based on economic backwardness again they will start demand equal parameters for all communities. 4. Other community will never agree to change the parameter from cast to income base.

I think education is key determent of the social and educational backwardness. That’s why I am recommending reservation should provide only in to the educational institute. After that reservation in job or in services is not an appropriate. Because in any job merit and quality of the candidate is important.   {http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/change-in-reservation-policy-2133-1.html}

 

 

There were two types of constitutional commissions- one was the National Backward Commission that refused the Maratha reservation and also made a 700 page report on how forward the class is. The second one was Bapat Commission that also declared it as a forward community on 2008.” {http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/bombay-hc-stays-reservation-order-for-marathas-muslims-114111401165_1.html   Bombay HC stays reservation order for Marathas, Muslims ANI   | Mumbai Last Updated at November 14, 2014 16:50 IS Business Standard

 

1 As per the census 2011, area – 307.713 km2, population of 112,374,333 that’s 9.28% of India’s population.

2 Writer.Thinker.Doer Caste-Based Reservation Could Pause India’s Growth Story/ 20/04/2016

3 KEshav Waghmare, Maratha Samajala Dhoka Pan Kunakadun? Divya Marathi 2016

4  Is Maratha Demand for reservation for reservation tenable? Evidence from India Human Development Survey, Ambrish Dongre, April 27 2017, Research

 

5 The Indian Express Press Trust of India | Mumbai | Published: June 25, 2014 9:44 pm

6 http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/bombay-hc-stays-reservation-order-for-marathas-muslims-114111401165_1.html   Bombay HC stays reservation order for Marathas, Muslims ANI        |  Mumbai Last Updated at November 14, 2014 16:50 IS Business Standard

7 hereditary occupation such as washerman, barber, weaver, carpenter, potter, fisherman, blacksmith, goldsmith, oil-crusher and besides a few middle castes primarily engaged in agriculture. Caste reservation in India : Policy and Politics K.C. Suri / Published by  Indian Political Science Association/ http://www.jstor.org/stable/41855679

 

8 http://www.legalservicesindia.com/article/article/reservation-policy-in-india-%E2%80%93-a-serious-threat-to-the-nation-1989-1.html / Reservation Policy in India – A serious Threats to The Nation February 27,2016 Jindaldimple

9 The Roots of the Maratha Unrest Lie in Mumbai’s Changing Political Economy BY SUMEET MHASKAR ON 05/12/2016  • 4 COMMENTS https://thewire.in/84198/maratha-unrest-linkages-mumbai-political-economy/ The Wire

10 Survey data also allows us to estimate the support received by each party from different social sections. How Maharashtra voted: Behind BJP, upper castes, OBCs and rich. Lokniti-CSDS post-poll analysis shows consolidation and fragmentation of community votes. Written by Suhas Palshikar | Mumbai | Updated: October 21, 2014. The Indian express.