safety is a vital aspect for operations and safety personnel – it has
implications for economy, delivery, quality, and social responsibility. Even
small accidents can hamper the productivity in many ways, and a major accident
can shut down the entire operation. In this context, questions about the causes
of workplace accidents are highly appropriate. The important factors
influencing industrial accidents include existing safety and societal systems
in spite of common thought that most workplace accidents occur due to insecure
working attitude of the labourers.
Accident, Injury, Steel, Employee
employees in the manufacturing sector, workplace safety has evolved from an
ancillary issue to an operating priority with significant economic and social
implications. The National Safety Council, 1999 estimated that in 1998, the
total cost of work-related deaths and injuries in the US was US$125.1 billion
and those organizations lost 80,000,000 work days because of injuries (Brown et
al., 2000). A range of different accident causes can be studied from the
existing literature. In general an employee’s attitude towards safe working
condition may become the reason for nearly every accident. In case of any
accident, it becomes easy to blame to person rather than the unsafe working
The purpose of this paper is to present a review on
the various perspectives on workplace safety in order to define more clearly
the antecedents to safe and unsafe work behaviors in manufacturing settings. Any safety aspect to be analyzed and rectified
requires elaborate study of the existing safety measures through literature
review. The review of some select literature and research studies is briefly explained
in this paper.
Aspects of Workplace Safety
Research on workplace safety is scattered among
fields such as occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, human factors
engineering, safety engineering, labor law, organizational behavior, and human
resource management. Each discipline tends to focus on variables that fall
within its domain, leaving few opportunities for readers to explore the
combined effects that characterize organizational safety realities. Different
variables ranging from societal, technical and personnel aspects can be
revealed through interdisciplinary literature search.
Occupational medicine is the
subspecialty of preventive medicine concerned with the health, safety, and
performance of workers. Occupational health specialists provide medical care to
workers with work-related injuries and illnesses.
Safety Hygiene is the
practice of ensuring the general health and safety of the campus by supplying
information, services, and equipment to help identify, evaluate, and control potentially
harmful activities in the work and learning environment.
Human factors in safety are
concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in
safety-critical situations (Vogt, 2010). Effective occupational health and
safety policies can’t be achieved unless both employers and employees perform
their respective responsibilities
(Kamal EltayebYassin, Nosaiba I Elsadig,
Safety and Occupational Health
As new industries develop,
existing industries expand, and new technology is introduced, the environment
is increasingly placed at risk and hazards to human health arise. A large
number of workers are victims of work-related accidents and illnesses (Viswanathan Swaminathan, 2011).
Unless workplace safety and
health are improved, occupational accidents, disease and costs cannot be
reduced (Jilcha, 2017). The innovation of workplace safety and health brings
sustainable development through healthy people, safer workplace, reduced cost
of accidents, controlled environment, managed workplace accidents and improved
workplace safety knowledge.
Providing the workers safety and
health would establish the necessary infrastructure for social and economic
sustainability and without healthy workers and safe working places, the
environment and the society would be exposed to danger. In another words,
unhealthy employees in unsafe environmental working conditions cannot have the
maximum productivity and efficiency, and as the result, the organization would
experience financial crisis which in turn brings difficult economic conditions
for the workers and the stakeholders, including customers, shareholders, and
the society as a whole (Zohreh Molamohamadi and Napsiah Ismail, 2014).
Fabian Alberto (2017) described
Occupational Safety and Health Cycle based on traditional risk management
approaches with five basic steps: regulations, education and training, risk
assessment, risk prevention and accident analysis.
Kachu Jilcha (2016) identified
existing gaps on workplace safety and health management and proposed future
research areas. Various characteristics of workplace safety and
health problems were found emanating from the lack of operational activities of
the employees, internal working environment and external environment those
impose hazards on employee temporarily, permanently and on working
Imon Rahman (2016) provided a brief overview
of occupational hazard exposures, accidents and their
hazardous impacts on human health, keeping in concern the most hazardous
occupational sectors in a developing country of Asia with a close comparison
with other developed and developing countries of the world.
based Safety Management System
The attitude of worker towards
safety and the importance given by worker to the safe working environment are
to be identified as these are critical factors towards prevention of workplace
injuries and losses. Behavior Based Safety approach can effectively reduce unsafe
attitudes that can lead to accidents occurring in the workplace. This approach
can be successfully implemented upon identification of the causes of unsafe
behavior. Work place safety management through behavior based safety also helps
in predicting and avoiding future accidents likely to occur. Across the globe many surveys and research studies were carried out on Behavior Based
Safety in different industrial sectors.
Most accidents occurring at
workplace are attributed to at-risk attitude of the workers which can be
largely controlled by changing their attitude (Sekar and Siddiqui, 2015). An
exploratory survey conducting using questionnaire on randomly selected
employees of the two construction companies indicated that the implementation
of behavior-based safety program in the construction project to a large extent
reduced workers at-risk behaviors and accident rate.