In carriage capacity. In the early 2000s, the

In order to address this challenge over overcrowding on railways
lines due to increasing demand, improving transport efficiency was imperative.
Efficiency could be increased by increasing the number of trains, rail tracks
and carriage capacity. In the early 2000s, the World Bank approved the Mumbai
Urban Transport Project (MUTP), whose main objective was to “facilitate urban economic
growth and improve quality of life by fostering the development of an efficient
and sustainable urban transport system including effective institutions to meet
the needs of the users in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR)” (Agarwal, 2013,
pp.118). The main parts of the project were: the rail transport component, road
transport component and resettlement and rehabilitation resulting from
execution of the other two components (ibid.).

Generally, the project was largely positive. Increased train numbers
lessened overcrowding on trains. Pollution was reduced and public transport was
made more comfortable for users. In addition, there was a process of
modernization of the buses, all part of a wider modernist project (Graham and Marvin,
2001). Nonetheless, the project was not without limitations. A major challenge of the project however, was the resettlement of
the displaced, roughly 20,000 household units, and approximately 100,000 people
(Agarwal, 2013, pp. 121), which comprised of informal settlements. This
limitation was dealt with by consulting and negotiating squatters, rather than
trying to compensate for losses.    

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Adapting
infrastructure to a changing world is imperative seeing as ‘urbanization is an
inevitable force’ (Zhang, 2016, pp.251). To conclude,
the city of Mumbai faces various urban infrastructural challenges as the city’s
population growth is continually absorbed by the slums. Access to urban
infrastructures in the city of Mumbai is highly differentiated on the basis of
housing and socio-economic characteristics. Standardised universal water
and sanitation provision still remains very challenging for the city. Within the city of Mumbai, there is an immense
sense of social exclusion for the citizens. Urban
infrastructures, is very visible for the poor rather than black-boxed. Some
challenges are worse than other, namely the water supply and sanitation issues
(elaborate). this essay has… xyz. In devising planning initiatives that can
sustainably tackle these challenges, the collective participation and
inclusivity of slums is imperative.