In how to achieve wider communal objectives. In

In conclusion, it can be seen that the ABME group is
heavily under-represented in various sports. This is due to the existence of
personal barriers, socioeconomic barriers, cultural barriers, and environmental
barriers that limit the participation rate of this group. Considering the
success of racial equality policies and community training initiatives in the
UK, the two strategies are recommendable in encouraging higher participation of
this group in organised sport.

The other initiative that has greatly succeeded in
increasing the participation of ABME people in sports is the use of active
training to empower more of them in sport facilitation roles. One of the most
successful of these projects is the Active Communities initiative that works
closely with the ABME community members. It has specifically developed unique
sports programmes and supporting facilities that are used to train community sports
leaders (Long et al., 2009). The sports leaders are exposed to coaching
knowledge and training which helps them to motivate other community members to
adopt sports. They are also instructed on how to achieve wider communal
objectives. In the Active Communities project, special attention is devoted to
the more sensitive groups of people within the ABME, such as girls and women,
very low-income individuals, and people with disabilities (Long et al., 2009).
This strategy has motivated more women to engage in sport, thus lowering the
gender inequality in sporting activities. The main reason behind the success of
this initiative is focused on the specific needs of the ABME communities.

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Various clubs in the UK have developed anti-racist
slogans that help to inspire ethnic tolerance. In some professional football
clubs like Northampton and Charlton Athletic, all members are required to
adhere to specific Racial Equality Standards set by the club management (Long
et al., 2009). This has made them be among the most successful clubs in
fighting racism and promoting inclusion. Many organisations that fight racism in
the sport have been established, including Show
Racism the Red Card, Kick It Out, Football Unites Racism Divides (FURD),
among others. FURD, in particular, works closely with the Millennium Volunteers
to run a football academy that predominantly draws people from the ABME group.
Their project has received a further boost from the Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE) which is composed of
approximately 60 percent of volunteers from the ABME group (Long et al., 2009).
This has increased the number of people from this ethnic minority group who
participate in football in the UK.

In the promotion of sports uptake among the ABME
people, two strategies have been applied successfully in the UK. They include
the formulation of racial equality policies and active training of sports
facilitators from the group. As noted above, racism is one of the main barriers
that hamper the participation of these people in an organised sport like
football. Back in 1997, the English Sports Council developed a guide that would
foster good practice among the various local authorities titled Working towards Racial Equality in Sport.
This document has informed most of the operations performed by the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) and
by the European Year against Racism (Long
et al., 2009). Racial equality is actively promoted in the UK, and this has translated
to more inclusion for the ABME group and other minority groups in the country.
For instance, Sports England has made a mandatory requirement for a sports
organisation to internally promote racial equality for them to qualify for
future funding. This strategy has succeeded since many sports organisations
including the National Sports Governing Body has quickly integrated racial
equality in their establishments (Long et al., 2009). As a result, racism
continues to decline in the country, thus creating a favourable environment for
the minority groups to participate in sports.

Two Successful Initiatives that Promote Participation of ABME Group in
Sport

Environmental barriers contribute greatly to the low
rates of participation of the ABME group members in the sport. To start with,
there are relatively fewer training and sporting facilities in the regions
where the minority people live. Consequently, many of them experience severe
mobility issues in trying to access the available sports facilities, many of
which are located outside their areas of residence (Dashper et al., 2017). In
Wales, the footballers that come from other places are rejected mainly because
they have a limited understanding of the Welsh sport. Recently, many clubs in
Wales have expressed an interest in absorbing players from the ABME community,
but they lack the resources necessary to meet the needs of these minority
people (Dashper et al., 2017). This can largely be attributed to the
environmental constraints. Community-level barriers such as “unfamiliar
environments” push many of these people away from the sport. A majority of
them prefer to participate in physical activities that are accessible to them
like fitness exercise, gym, and swimming (Koshoedo et al., 2015). It is clear
that community-level barriers discourage many from the active uptake of elite
football, among other organised sports.

Another barrier that is closely associated with culture
is racism. Research shows that racial and ethical constraints play a major role
in reducing the level of participation of the ABME group in football and other
sporting events. Ethnic differences in the UK have sparked intense conflict in
many sports arenas. For instance, a recent survey conducted in England revealed
that many football stadiums displayed hate messages that fuelled racism. Many
football managers and news editors have been implicated in racist remarks, with
many professional footballers reporting cases of harassment based on their
racial identities (Long et al., 2009). The Black Minority group is especially
more exposed to racial hatred. It can be argued that limited understanding of
the importance of social diversity helps to increase racism. Many ABME group
members are locked out of the lucrative football coaching roles due to their
ethnic affiliations. This problem has specifically made it more difficult to
increase inclusion in the coaching organisations in the England and Wales, with
many organisational leaders preferring to maintain their ‘unequal’ workforce
(Norman et al., 2014). Racism, therefore, becomes a major impediment that
lowers the rate of sports participation among this group.

The cultural and religious expectations of these
people also pose another barrier. In many ABME communities, the people expect
sporting activities to incorporate and promote their cultural and religious
practices. Based on social reservations, many of them insist on having certain
provisions, such as same-sex instructors, single-sex facilities, and use of
lifeguards. These cultural expectations are particularly more important to the
Muslim communities (Koshoedo et al., 2015). Regrettably, the elite football is
governed by different rules, and this makes it very difficult for these people
to be accommodated in the sport. In other cases, the ABME group members fear
that participating in sport will weaken their traditional values or lead to the
disappearance of certain cultural practices. The individuals have to make a
tough choice between embracing sport and retaining their customs. Moreover, the
absence of indoor-facilities that are culturally-sensitive makes many of them
to avoid physical activities (Koshoedo et al., 2015). Proper sensitisation of
the people on the need to embrace new cultural practices that are beneficial to
them is needed to motivate Black Minority people to engage in sport.

Cultural barriers have a strong influence in lowering
the rate of sports participation among the AMBE group. In this ethnic group,
the culture of an elite sport like football, is considered part of the
“Western” culture, and therefore, foreign to them. Many of the Black
minority people do not value sport, and in some communities, they regard
physical activity to be harmful to their health (Koshoedo et al., 2015). This
poses a cultural barrier that discourages many from engaging in active sport.
In many African cultures, the women are expected to concentrate on family
matters and not participate in physical activities. Those that participate in
sport are considered “immoral” leading to them being subjected to social sanctions,
ridicule, and gossip (Koshoedo et al., 2015). To a large extent, this
discourages many women from participating in the sport. From a cultural
perspective, the special clothing requirements imposed in various sports make
it challenging for the minority groups to participate since many are attached
to their cultural mode of dressing (Koshoedo et al., 2015). Clinging to
familiar cultural practices and avoiding the adoption of new cultural
behaviours serves as a powerful barrier to the people taking up the organised
sport.

Socioeconomic barriers also play a critical role in
reducing the rate of sports participation among this group. Many of the ABME
group members in the UK are migrants, and they suffer financial constraints
that limit the range of physical activities in which they can engage. Cost is
identified as one of the barriers to participation. For instance, many cannot
afford to pay for transport to distant sporting facilities on a regular basis
(Koshoedo et al., 2015). Additionally, the high cost associated with
maintaining sporting facilities complicates their financial problems.
Low-income families in the rural areas find it increasingly difficult to access
the available sporting facilities and hence prefer to avoid sporting activities
(Dashper et al., 2017). Other factors that extend this financial inequality
include politics, demographic changes, community issues, and global movements.
Politics is particularly observed in the event whereby, sports administrators
fail to take responsibility for increasing inclusion within the sports
organisations and governance bodies (Long et al., 2009). All these
socioeconomic barriers make the ABME group participate dismally in sports.

Various barriers contribute to the low participation
rate of the ABME Group in the sport. These barriers can be placed under four
major themes; namely, perceived personal barriers, socioeconomic barriers,
cultural barriers, and environmental barriers (Koshoedo et al., 2009). Some of
the main personal barriers include lack of motivation, lack of time or
availability, and health concerns. To start with, time constraints make many of
the ABME group members to shun sport. As research findings indicate, this group
assigns more importance to work commitments (i.e., long-working hours) at the
expense of physical activity. This is mainly motivated by the need to achieve
financial stability to help them survive in the UK. For females within this
group, they tend to take higher pride in family commitments (i.e., house
management and childcare) compared to engaging in sport (Koshoedo et al.,
2015). Another personal barrier is lack of motivation and confidence in
excelling in sports. Many ABME group members perceive sport as a separate and
formal activity that is inconsistent with their daily lifestyles. Furthermore,
inherent communication barriers, lack of social networks and alien sporting
environment helps to reinforce this perception (Koshoedo et al., 2015).
Personal barriers are powerful inhibitors of this ethnic group partaking in
leading sports like football.