*I exist. One theory says that **the Earth

*I am a space lover. I love to research new things about space, about our genesis and of course if there is another intelligent beings.*!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e1/FullMoon2010.jpg)After a lots of reading, today we will talk about **Moon**.**Moon** always was a dream for human, always wanted to conquer it. Even from antiquity, human tried to discover what is beyond his planet.The Moon is one of the most beautiful **jewels of the sky**. With out Moon, the earth could not be exist. One theory says that **the Earth will destroy after 20,000 years**. Of course this **is only a theory**.According to a research recently published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters(https://www.journals.elsevier.com/earth-and-planetary-science-letters, Moon helps the earth to **maintain** its magnetic field.> The average Earth – Moon distance is 384,403 kilometersThe moon **is not a planet** as we probably think, but a satellite. The Moon is thought to have formed about **4,5 billion years ago**. It is the **only natural** Earth satellite and the fifth largest natural satellite of the solar system.## How moon was createdLot’s of theories exist about how moon was created. The more prevalent theory says that **4,5 billion years ago** after the genesis of the Earth, there was **a great cosmic conflict** that NASA calls “**Big Whack**”.> Another planet called Theia, crash on the Earth. Thia’s size was about> like **Mars**.After the conflict, many pieces of this planet dispersed in space. With the passing of time, the remains have taken **shape**. So the moon took the final form we can see today.## Internal structureThe Moon has a solid internal iron core with a radius of 240 kilometers surrounded by a liquid outer core, which is made of liquid iron and has a radius of 300 kilometers.!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Moon_diagram.svg/654px-Moon_diagram.svg.png)

Source: Internal structure(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Moon_diagram.svg/654px-Moon_diagram.svg.png)
## Surface geology!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/MoonTopoLOLA.png)The topography of the Moon(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topography_of_the_Moon) has been measured with laser altimetry and stereo image analysis. Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin(South%20Pole%E2%80%93Aitken%20basin), some 2,240 km (1,390 mi) in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System. At 13 km (8.1 mi) deep, its floor is the lowest point on the surface of the Moon. The highest elevations of the Moon’s surface are located directly to the northeast, and it has been suggested might have been thickened by the oblique formation impact of the South Pole–Aitken basin.## The first photo of the Moon!Source: the-first-photograph-of-the-moon(http://www.fotoart.gr/istoria/onephotoonestory/firstofmoon.jpg)
Source: The First Photograph of The Moon(http://www.fotoart.gr/photography/history/historyphotos/onephotoonestory/thefirstphotoofthemoon.htm)
– The first photo of the moon was taken **in 1839 from John W. Draper**.John William was born in England and immigrated in the U.S.A.There he became a chemistry professor in the New York University. The silver platinum plate (Daguerreotype print) of the moon wasthe first of a series that where shot using a telescope. This serieswas later presented at the Science Academy. Draper was also thefirst to shoot a portrait in America, the portrait of his sisterDorothy – Catherine . In 1864 he became chairman of the American PhotographicAssociation(http://www.americanphotographyassociation.org/). ## Moon landings (Humans)1. **Apollo 11**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Apollo_11_first_step.jpg)**Apollo 11** was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong) and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours after landing on July 21 at 02:56:15 UTC; Aldrin joined him about 20 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and collected 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar material to bring back to Earth. Michael Collins piloted the command module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon’s surface. Armstrong and Aldrin spent just under a day on the lunar surface before rejoining Columbia in lunar orbit.2. **Apollo 12**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Surveyor_3-Apollo_12.jpg)**Apollo 12** was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. It was launched on November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Space_Center), Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Mission commander Charles “Pete” Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity while Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon remained in lunar orbit. The landing site for the mission was located in the southeastern portion of the Ocean of Storms.3. **Apollo 13**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Apollo_13_passing_Moon.jpg)**Apollo 13** was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The craft was launched on April 11, 1970, at 14:13 EST (19:13 UTC) from the Kennedy Space Center(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Space_Center), Florida, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module upon which the Command Module had depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to make makeshift repairs to the carbon dioxide removal system, the crew returned safely to Earth on April 17, 1970, six days after launch.The flight passed the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 kilometers (137 nautical miles) above the lunar surface, and 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth, a spaceflight record marking the farthest humans have ever traveled from Earth. The mission was commanded by James A. Lovell with John L. “Jack” Swigert as Command Module Pilot and Fred W. Haise as Lunar Module Pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for the original CM pilot Ken Mattingly, who was grounded by the flight surgeon after exposure to German measles.The story of the Apollo 13 mission has been dramatized multiple times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13_%28film%29).4. **Apollo 14**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/09/Apollo_14_Shepard.jpg)**Apollo 14** was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the “H missions,” targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks.Commander Alan Shepard, Command Module Pilot Stuart Roosa, and Lunar Module Pilot Edgar Mitchell launched on their nine-day mission on January 31, 1971 at 4:04:02 p.m. local time after a 40-minute, 2 second delay due to launch site weather restrictions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Shepard and Mitchell made their lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation – originally the target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. During the two lunar EVAs, 42.80 kilograms (94.35 lb) of Moon rocks were collected, and several scientific experiments were performed. Shepard hit two golf balls on the lunar surface with a makeshift club he had brought with him. Shepard and Mitchell spent 33½ hours on the Moon, with almost 9½ hours of EVA.5. **Apollo 15**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg)**Apollo 15** was the ninth manned mission in the United States’ Apollo program(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program), the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission. It was the first of what were termed “J missions”, long stays on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions. It was also the first mission on which the Lunar Roving Vehicle was used.The mission began on July 26, 1971, and ended on August 7. At the time, NASA called it the most successful manned flight ever achieved.6. **Apollo 16**!enter image description here(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/John_W._Young_on_the_Moon.jpg/800px-John_W._Young_on_the_Moon.jpg)**Apollo 16** was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program), the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands. The second of the so-called “J missions,” it was crewed by Commander John Young, Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke and Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly. Launched from the Kennedy Space Center(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Space_Center) in Florida at 12:54 PM EST on April 16, 1972, the mission lasted 11 days, 1 hour, and 51 minutes, and concluded at 2:45 PM EST on April 27.7. **Apollo 17****Apollo 17** was the **final mission** of NASA’s Apollo program. Launched at 12:33 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) on December 7, 1972, with a crew made up of Commander Eugene Cernan, Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans, and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt, it was the last use of Apollo hardware for its original purpose; after Apollo 17, extra Apollo spacecraft were used in the Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz programs.Apollo 17 was the first night launch of a U.S. human spaceflight and the final manned launch of a Saturn V rocket. It was a “J-type mission” which included three days on the lunar surface, extended scientific capability, and the third Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). While Evans remained in lunar orbit in the Command/Service Module (CSM), Cernan and Schmitt spent just over three days on the moon in the Taurus–Littrow valley and completed three moonwalks, taking lunar samples and deploying scientific instruments. Evans took scientific measurements and photographs from orbit using a Scientific Instruments Module mounted in the Service Module.## EpilogueMoon always was a dream for human. Except that it is a jewel in the sky, without Moon, the Earth could not be exist. The Moon is not a planet. It was created from a conflict between a planet called “Theia” and the Earth 4,5 billon years ago.Moon has a solid internal iron core with a radius of 240 kilometers surrounded by a liquid outer core. Its most visible topographic feature is the giant far-side South Pole–Aitken basin(South%20Pole%E2%80%93Aitken%20basin), some 2,240 km (1,390 mi) in diameter, the largest crater on the Moon and the second-largest confirmed impact crater in the Solar System.The first photo of the moon was taken **in 1839 from John W. Draper**. He was born in England and immigrated in the U.S.A.There he became a chemistry professor in the New York University.
Human landed on the moon seven times:
– **Apollo 11** – Neil Armstrong(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong) became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours after landing.- **Apollo 12** – Charles “Pete” Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity- **Apollo 13** – The lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days later, crippling the Service Module upon which the Command Module had depended.- **Apollo 14** – It was the last of the “H missions,” targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks.- **Apollo 15** – It was the first of what were termed “J missions”, long stays on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions. It was also the first mission on which the Lunar Roving Vehicle was used.- **Apollo 16** – The second of the so-called “J missions,” it was crewed by Commander John Young, Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke and Command Module Pilot Ken Mattingly- **Apollo 17** – It was the final mission of NASA’s Apollo program. Also it was the last use of Apollo hardware for its original purpose; after Apollo 17, extra Apollo spacecraft were used in the Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz programs.## Content sources- http://time.com/3805947/the-first-photograph-of-the-moon/- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon- http://www.fotoart.gr/photography/history/historyphotos/onephotoonestory/thefirstphotoofthemoon.htm- http://www.iefimerida.gr/news/261774/horis-feggari-i-anthropotita-den-tha-ypirhe-pos-i-selini-diatirei-tin-gi-zontani- http://coolweb.gr/feggari-pos-dimiourgithike/- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missions_to_the_Moon