(3) Policy adopted by the Government
(4) Progress made by India in this field
(5) Our Five Year Plans
(6) Our needs for complete industrial revolution
During the pre-independence days the British rulers did not encourage industrialization in India. It was the Swadeshi Movement of 1905 which first gave the impetus to industries in India through private enterprise, but it was not till the World-War II that Industrial Development in India on large scale was seriously thought of. That was because during the war period India was made the base for production and supply of war materials for the Eastern and Middle Eastern theatres of war.
After independence the main obstacle in the path of industrial development was removed. There was a general demand for the rapid industrialization of the country. There was an urgent need of increasing the national wealth and thereby the standard of living of the people. The increasing pressure of population on land also called for a transfer of labour from land to industries.
The Government favored the policy of mixed economy. Some industries were put in the public sector; others were left to the private sector. The industries like arms and ammunition, the production control of atomic energy, river valley projects, railways, steel, aircraft manufacture, ship-building, telephone and telegraph, etc., we kept under the state control. But the industries like coal, iron, textile-jute, sugar, tea, cement, leather goods, mineral oil etc. were left to private enterprise subject to certain regulations and control by the Government.
This policy underwent some modification in 1956 and the scope of the public sector was considerably enlarged in keeping with the Government’s goal to establish Socialistic Pattern of Society.
We have already set up some heavy industries. Sindri Factory is one of the biggest fertilizer factories in the world. Our textile mills supply all the cloth that we need. Textile goods are also exported in large quantities. India is self-sufficient in jute products. She is one of the largest sugar-producing countries in the world. The Tata Iron and Steel Company is the pioneer in the field of iron industry. Coal is mined in Bengal and Bihar.
Vishakhapatnam is noted for shipbuilding. Aeroplanes are being produced at Bangalore and railway locomotives are made in Chittaranjan. The Ordance Factory at Ambernath is one of the best in the whole world-Russia has helped us in setting up an oil refineryvat Mathura, besides a huge steel plant at Bhilai. Germany has helped us in setting up a huge steel factory at Rourkela. Another steel plant has been set up at Durgapur with the help of England. Today a country’s progress is measured by the quantity of steel it produces. Some of the oil firms have been nationalised.
The Five Year Plans were launched to secure the balanced growth of public and private sectors as also of large-scale and small scale industries. Foreign capital was invited to speed up industrialization. The Government’s policy was to bring proper utilization of the country’s resources and ensure equitable distribution of various industries among the states. As a result of this we have witnessed the rapid industrialization in the country.
To bring about complete industrial revolution India should be self-sufficient in raw materials, technical knowledge, machines and machine tools, skilled labour and technicians. It we go on depending upon foreign aid, we will not be able to enjoy the fruits of industrial growth.
In the process of industrial revolution the importance of small-scale and cottage industries should not be ignored. Of course, the top priority must be given to those heavy industries which are essential for the manufacture of light machines, machine tools and other equipments.