# Girls: is a quick approach psychologist use to

Girls:
0,1,1,1,2,3,3,4,5,5 – mean: 2.5, mode: 1, median: 1                                                                                                                     Boys: 0,1,1,2,2,2,2,3,3,4 –
mean: 2, mode: 2, median: 2

Calculating the
mean, mode and median to analyse data is a quick approach psychologist use to
collect their data. To find out the mean you add all the data together and
divide it by the amount of numbers there. To calculate the median the numbers
are all placed in a list sorted from lowest to highest and the identify the
middle number. To find out the mode you pick out the number that occurs the
most from the list.

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Prompt 8

Random sampling has been used in
scenario B. This is a good type of sampling method that has an equal chance for
anyone to have the option to be picked to take part which also helps avoid bias
towards a certain type of sample group. This can be a very time-consuming
process especially when the sample is not being handpicked by the researcher. Another
kind of sampling method that could have been used in scenario B is systematic
sampling, where the researcher would list all the population and divide the
number of people in the list by the number off people the researcher wants to
be apart of their sample. This method should gain a representative sample, but this
can often be time consuming and cost effective to the researcher.

Prompt 7

In this scenario, non-participant observation has been used,
this is when the participants are unaware that they are being observed. This helps
limit people changing their behaviour due to the pressure of knowing they are
being observed so more natural results are created when people do not know they
are being studied. The issue with this type of research is that it is unethical
due to the participants lack awareness of what is going on. A different type of
research method that could be used for this scenario would be a questionnaire. Questionnaires
can be approached in different formats where the questions could be created to
collect more in-depth detail or can be kept simple with just single word
answers. This changes the type of data that could be collected whether it be
is that it can delivered in diverse ways, such as posted online, handed out in the
streets, left in shops, or sent into schools. Although the issue with a
questionnaire is that people may not give truthful and in detail responses.

Prompt 6

The first stage of the psychology research process is to
choose a topic. The second stage is to review literature which is when you go look
at other work that other researchers have carried out relating to the same
research hypothesis which is a prediction on what the research will find out. The
fourth step is to design a study the researcher will plan how they are going to
carry out the research to collect their data to see if their findings support
their hypothesis or not. This can be done by carrying out different research
methods such as experimental which the researcher gets to control the two
variables; Independent and dependant or non-experimental which they can choose
if it will be a survey, or case study or if it will be observational. Stage
five is collecting the data where the researchers carry out their experiments
and collect the data related to the hypothesis. Stage six is analysing the data
and comparing it to the hypothesis. Stage seven is drawing up a conclusion on whether
the data gathered supports or does not support the hypothesis. And the final
stage is publishing the findings of the research so that other researchers can consider
them and pass on their opinions.

Prompt 5:

The ethical issues that came along with Milgram’s study on
obedience were things such as deception, the participants were falsely led to
believe they were shocking the confederate for real and were unaware that it
was just one of Milgram’s actors. Another ethical issue was the right to
withdraw, The BPS identifies that researchers should make it openly clear to
the participants that they have the rights to withdraw from the experiment
throughout anytime they wish. Milgram’s experiment showed that the experimenter
pushed the participants to continue to shock the confederate which discouraged
them from feeling comfortable to withdraw from the experiment freely. Although
Milgram argued that the purpose of the experiment was to test the levels of
obedience so obeying orders was necessary and that some of the participants did
withdraw from it.

Prompt 4:

Stanley Milgram was a psychologist from Yale University who
was interested in carrying out the research to test the levels of obedience
between personal conscience and authority. He wanted to see how far a person
would obey the instructions of an authority figure even if it meant harming
experiment in the paper in which they would also be paid a small sum for
volunteering to take part in the research. The research studied 40 males with
an age range between 20 years old to 50 years old who were in different social
classes within the working status. The participant was introduced to one of
Milgram’s confederates and they drew straws to pick what roles they would
undertake but what the real participant did not know was that the straws were
fixed so that the confederate would always get the role of the ‘learner’ and
the participant would be the ‘teacher’. There were two rooms one where the
‘learner’ would go into where they were attached to an electric chair and the
other room was where the ‘teacher’ and the ‘experimenter’ would be in where
there was an electric shock generator. The ‘learner’ would be given a list of
words to learn and then the ‘teacher’ would recall a word in which the
‘learner’ would have to answer the words pair from memory and if he got it
wrong he would be given a shock which would increase in voltage every time he
answered a question wrong. The voltage ranged from 15 to 450 which was the most
dangerous level for the shock. If the ‘teacher’ refused to give a shock the
experimenter would give orders in order to get them to continue. Two thirds of
participants continued to shock to the highest level of volts. Milgram’s
conclusion was that people often obey orders given by authority figures because
from a young age we are taught to respect member of authority when we recognize
them to have a legally based role. One of the issues with Milgram’s study was
that he only focused on one gender which was the male group so it is unclear on
how the results would transfer onto the female gender and how different the
results would be. Another issue raised was that Milgram’s participants were
self-selected only because they saw it in an advertisement in the newspaper,
which means they might have a ‘volunteer personality’ which means those types
of personality groups may be the people who volunteered as not all readers
responded.

Prompt
3:

Obedience is a type of Social influence where an individual act in
response to a direct order from another individual, who is usually an authority
figure. Obedience involves a hierarchy through power and status therefore
occurs when a person giving the order has a higher Status than the person
receiving the order. In the scenario Keith shows signs of obedience by obeying
the orders given by a council worker in uniform when asked to clear his rubbish
but if a member of the public asked him he would just ignore their request.
This type of Social influence can be explained through the research study
carried out by Bickman (1974) who used a field experiment to test the degree of
social power. Subjects were stopped in the Street by an experimenter dressed in
one of three ways; civilian, milkman and a guard. They were asked to pick up
litter or to move away from a bus stop to see who they were more likely to
comply with and the results indicated that the subjects complied more with the
guard. In the Second experiment to examine the basis of the guard’s power they
were asked to give money to a stranger by the guard under the conditions of
surveillance or no Surveillance. The guard’s power was not affected by
surveillance manipulation. An analysis of Social power indicated that the
guards power was most likely based on legitimacy.

Prompt 2:

Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change of
belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group and is often defined as
yielding to group pressures. In Scenario A Mark and Keith can be seen to show
signs of conformity when living in a shared flat with other people who were
environmentally conscious and always recycled. Mark and Keith both showed
compliance when living in the flat and recycled because the other flat mates
all carried out this routine, compliance is when you are influenced by another
person or group because you want to be accepted and avoid being out casted. The
type of conformity that affected Mark is known as Internalisation which is
where he adopts the beliefs that the group holds because it is consistent with
his value system. Internalisation is where you maintain the beliefs out with
the group and continue to go by the newly adopted values. Keith on the other
hand did not maintain these new values when he moved out of the flat to which
he showed signs of identification which is where he accepted the influence to
satisfy the group but still maintained his own private beliefs.

Prompt 1: