Gender developing countries like India and Pakistan. It

 Gender Inequality become big an issue
throughout the world it  means when women
and men are treated unequal in workplace, family and education. Gender
inequality most commonly seen in developing countries like India and Pakistan.
It is also considered that women and men have equal opportunities in every
field around the world. However, the women are not equally paid and promoted as
quickly as men at workplace. Nowadays, most common a forms of gender inequality
is in the workplace. At workplace women are not paid according to their
potential or abilities. Although, women are doing the same job as men with the
same power and hard work but still they are paid less and face unequal
treatment at the workplace. However, women achieved higher ranking in
educational field as compared to men but the income that paid to women is less.
In many areas in developing countries women don’t have knowledge regarding
their rights and capital to secure their land and asset inheritance after being
widowed and such events can have long term impact on livelihood opportunities.()
Too many male co workers sometimes create a discomfort work environment for
women’s even if some many male are working in supervisions then women face
delays in promotions. If the women are treated equalized then it creates a
healthier career path. Moreover it increases efficiency and motivation in
employee who are working there.

Chilean women
still face many challenges like low workforce participation and an income gap. According to the 2007 World Bank report,
“Chile: Reconciling the Gender Paradox”, women earn 20% less money than their
male coworkers when performing the same work. Overall, there is a 33% gap
between women and men’s salaries.(Ruohan,Xueya,2016.259) In Chilean manufacturing
industries, male are more dominant rather than a female in the work force..
Only a very few firms (around 10%) hire more female workers. A quarter of the
big firms have 100% male executives; 40% of the medium and small firms have
purely male executives. About half of the firms, no matter what size, have
purely male specialized workers.(Ruohan,Xueya,2016p.262). In Chilean
manufactures the gender discrimination is still highly unequal. In the firm it
is not matter how many employees are working and which kind of job they are
doing but male has the majority in the labour force.

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Women also face
sexual harassment at workplace. Sexual harassment means “unwanted sexual
advances whether touch, looks, pressure to have sex or even jokes”(Rahi,2017). This
problem had a  impact on women of all
ages, appearances, races, religions and ethnicities, diverse marital and family
status, and income levels. Some women face bad comment s and hints from boss
like pinching, grabbing and touching. The women who refused to do sex with
higher authorities and boss then they have to suffer from various punishment
like no promotion , more workload , long hours shifts which put negative effect
on their personal and family live. The main reason is gender-role socialization
made it difficult for women to refusal unwelcome male sexual attention.  The another reason that women face this type
of behaviour because they don’t want to lose to their job. In 1978, on 13thmarch
the Secret Oppression project was published regarding a sexual harassment  in Toronto . He found that there was a
waitress and she was suffered from sexual harassed from all sides like from her
customers, restaurant manager and from bartender even from cook. Another
example , One women was clerk Worker at small advertising agency harassed by
her company’s vice president boss and her boss demanded to sleep with him so
when she refused she followed with coercive physical overtures (Backhouse,2012p281). Most
of the women try to ignore this unwanted proposal from family members and from
society so that society will respect them.

In 1979, a
survey of women state employees was conducted by the Illinois Task  Force of Sexual Harassment in the workplace
and Sangamon State  University in which
questionnaire was sent to 4856 women’s and 30% women  responded. 63% of women reported that sexual
harassment is serious problem at workplace where as 59% responded had
experienced still sexual harassment in their present life. After that, asked
consequences of sexual harassment then It reveals that 6% responded reported
that they had been denied for promotion and 14% said this is happened on women
as they know and 7% of women quit job because of sexual harassment. (McIntyre,1982)

In India, only
54% women are literate as compared to 75% men because women receive little
schooling and suffer from unfair and biased inheritance and divorce laws. Education
is considered as more powerful tool to reduce poverty and improve social
structure and economic growth which leads to the development of country. It
reduce the social injustice and provide equal resources and opportunities to
both gender. According to
Census 2011, the literacy rate in India was about 74 percent as compared to
about 65 percent in 2001 and 52 percent in 1991. The female literacy rate was
65 against the male literacy rate of 82. Though the male-female gap in literacy
improved from 21.6 per cent in 2001 to around 17 per cent in 2011, it still
remains large.(Waseem2015) . Problem of gender inequality and discrimination
begins with accessing schooling. There are number of cultural and social
barriers which prevent women to accessing the school and which are poverty,
long distance to school and poor sanitation facilities. The gender division of
labour still reward women less in the work place. Women are considered as weak,
shy and dependent and they are expected to confine in house and for households
work. In past time , women has not same right and privileges as men even they
are not allowed to give vote .Women has to obey the rules and regulations of
their in laws and it is required to surrender their property to their husband
upon marriage. Furthermore, there don’t have right to go outside the home for
education so they have limited job opportunities. It is imagined that women
have to work at home and handle domestic affairs and raising children. The first
efforts to achieve equality for women occurred in the 1800s in which co
educational institute studies at university was offered first time. State also
passed a law in which women can keep their property after marriage.(Rahi 2015).  The state wise
literacy rates of male and female and gender gap in 2001. Meghalaya (3.4) has
the least literacy rate gap which was 3.4 followed by Kerala and Mizoram
was4.3. On the other hand, this gap is alarmingly high in states like Rajasthan
which was 27.8 ,Jharkhand was 22.3, and Chhattisgarh was 20.9(waseem2001)

 

Wage structure are
represent by the return of human to human capital investment as well as overall
level of wages inequality may play a important role in generating the gender
wage gap.(Micheal 1996). The average women earn 33% less than men in Canada and
only 15% less in Australia. Between 1988 to 2007 the National Graduate survey
was conducted on post secondary graduate students to see wage gaps. Female graduates earn on average 6–14%
less than males during the period two to five years after graduation.( Bourdat
and Coharaly 1996p1038).

The rural
workers are paid less than urban workers due to limited job choice and fewer
training opportunities. The rural workers are low skilled and therefore they
have less pay scale. due to lack of mobility the rural women’s are stuck in low
paying job, segregated
occupations as compared urban worker.

Various policy
should be introduced like training and lessons provide on gender equality so
that managers and officers will be educate regarding gender discrimination.  Provide adequate educational facilities to
women specially in rural  and backward
areas. Eradicating social ills which hinder the development of women’s
education .Moreover government  make
strictly any strict rules which  prohibit
any kinds of sexual harassment at workplace because that allow both men and
women equally balance their work and their family lives. At workplace workers
get equally compensated and promoted based on their performance, experience and
education. All workers are treated equally at workplace in terms of rights,
obligations, benefits and opportunities. If women are suffered by harassment
then they have proper right to complain about this misshaping to government
officers and higher authorities so they will do proper  investigation. Top management must signal
that sexual harassment prevention is of top of priority in the work place and
try to eliminate sexual harassment from the workplace. The sexual harassment
mostly occurred at workplace if women are working at clubs and in companies.
Still women are suffering from this because some women don’t have knowledge
regarding proper human rights and some are under pressure. The two  are considered the most important in society
the first is health and second is safety.

 

 

 

 

Ruohan, W.,
& Xueyu, C. (2016). GENDER EQUALITY IN THE WORKPLACE: THE EFFECT OF GENDER
EQUALITY ON PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH AMONG THE CHILEAN MANUFACTURERS. Journal Of
Developing Areas, 50(1), 257-274.

WASEEM, M.
(2015). GENDER INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION IN INDIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. CLEAR
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Michael P. Kidd,
a., & Michael Shannon, a. (1996). The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of
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Boudarbat, B.,
& Connolly, M. (2013). The gender wage gap among recent post-secondary
graduates in Canada: a distributional approach. Canadian Journal Of Economics,
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Esperanza
Vera-Toscano, a., Euan Phimister, a., & Alfons Weersink, a. (2004). Panel
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Rahi, A. (2015).
Gender Discrimination in India and Its Solution. International Journal Of
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Backhouse, C.
(2012). Sexual Harassment: A Feminist Phrase That Transformed the Workplace.
Canadian Journal Of Women And The Law, (2), 275. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=8a74d031-0b4f-44ef-8a2d-5594be28dc18%40pdc-v-sessmgr01

Licata, B. J.,
& Popovich, P. M. (1987). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Proactive
Approach. Training & Development Journal, 41(5), 34.

McIntyre, D. I., & Renick, J. (1982). Protecting
Public Employees and Employers from Sexual Harassment. Public Personnel
Management, 11(3), 282.
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