GENDER any act that results in a bodily,

GENDER
BASED VIOLANCE: According to law n°59/2008 of 10/09/2008 on prevention and punishment of Gender- based
violence; Gender- based violence refers to any act that results in a
bodily, psychological, sexual and economic harm to somebody just because they
are female or male. Such act results in the deprivation of freedom and negative
consequences. This violence may be exercised within or outside households1. 

In other words, Gender-based violence (GBV) is
the general term used to capture violence that occurs as a result of the
normative role expectations associated with each gender, along with the unequal
power relationships between the two genders, within the context of a specific
society.2

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ELEMENTS
OF GENDER BASED VIOLANCE.

Gender based violence
have three main elements:

1.     
Physical
violence.

Physical violence
involves slapping, punching, grabbing,kicking,shaking, pulling hair, biting,
use of force or threat to someone in order to carryout sexual intercourse,  use of weapons against him or her, battery, murder,
destroying his/her possessions. Physical violence also comprises sexual acts
which include sodomy, rape and marital rape, genital mutilation, sexual
harassment, incest, defilement and sexual violence committed during war occurrence. 

2.     
Emotional/Psychological
violence.

Psychological violence
may include shouting to someone, ridicule and humiliate, denial of safe sex in
addition we have denying women freedom of movement or of association, verbal
insults and forced marriages.

3.      Economical deprivation.

It is a kind of
violation by depriving someone’s right over the economical property, education
and training, discriminating against women or men in employment situations.3

CAUSES
OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE

Individual-level
factors

Individual-level
factors are historical backgrounds which increases the risks of violence where we found that
sometimes women were the victims of the violence because of their biological previous intimate relationships. For example, ignorant, young age and poverty have been
associated as risk factors for both experiencing and perpetrate intimate spouse
violence like exposure to sexual abuse and intra-parental violence during
childhood as well as a history of women or men4.

Society-level
factors

Society-level factors are factors which includes social
norms and cultural which shapes gender roles and the separation of powers
between women and men. Intimate spouses violence also  occurs more often in societies where men have
right over  economic and decision making
powers in the family and where women do not have easy access to divorce and
where adults routinely resort to violence to resolve their conflicts5.

EFFECTS OF GENDER BASED
VIOLENCE

At work. 
The experiencing a trauma like sexual violence may interfere with someone’s
ability to work this is where we found that employer want to abuse the right of
employee sexually but the employees refused to what their boss need had to quit
or were forced to leave their jobs. So this comes as result of gender based
violence to place of their work6.

 Home. According to their
homes many women are enforced to leave their homes in order to find safety place
because of violence that are meet within their homes. This shows that half of
all homeless women and children became homeless due to the harassment and torture
 by their spouses on side of women and while
children’s trying to escape because of their parents7.

PUNISHMENT
OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE.

According to Rwanda
law n°59/2008 of 10/09/2008 on
prevention and punishment of gender- based violence it stipulates legal
provisions which could be used in punishing those perpetrators, the following:

Ø  According
to articles 3, 4, 14, 18 and 20 of the law mentioned above. It is strictly
prohibited to use threat or force in depriving someone rights for the purpose
of having them indulge in any gender based violence act. It is forbidden to
harass to deprive one’s spouse of the right to property and to employment in
case of commission of those related acts he/she will liable to the punishment8.

PREVENTION
OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE.

The following paragraph
basically indicates prevention and protection of Gender Based Violence as
analyzed in articles of law nO59/2008 of 10/09/2008

The parent,
guardian or any other person who has responsibilities to cater for a child
either male or female has to protect the child against any gender based
violence. It shall be forbidden not to cater for a child

Under one’s
guardianship (Art 7).   It is prohibited to use any mean which can
push another person to interact in unexpected sexual intercourse such as drugs;
films, signs and language. Otherwise any person found such incident occurring
must, rescue and call for rescue the victims of this violence (art10)

It is restricted
for any person to have any act of conduct or other behavior that can generate
gender based violence against someone (art 11).

 

1
See  art 2 of law n°59/2008 of 10/09/2008 on prevention and punishment of gender- based
violence

2 X, “defining gender based
violence” available at  http://www.health-genderviolence.org last accessed on 19th.12.2017

3 M.Oguli-Oumo, I.Molokomme,
promoting an integrated approach to
combat Gender Based Violence. London, The common wealth Secretariat,
Marlborough House, April 2002.  

4 X, causes of gender based violence 
available at http://www.health-genderviolence.org/guidance-for-health-care-professionals-in-strengthening-health-system-responses-to-gender-based-vi-0 19th/01/2018.


Ibid.

6 X, effect of gender violence
available at https://www.womenshealth.gov/relationships-and-safety/effects-violence-against-women accessed on 19th/01/2018.

7
Ibid

8   Law n°59/2008 of 10/09/2008 on prevention and
punishment of gender- based violence.