Four Styles of Parenting

Miller, F., Vandome, A., & John, M. (2010).Parenting styles. New York, NY: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K.

In this study, the authors define parenting styles as psychological constructs signifying typical strategies that parents utilize in bringing up their children. The authors continue to explain that parenting styles are affected by children’s and parents’ dispositions and mainly based on the influence of one’s culture, traditions and origins.

Most parents have learnt parenting styles from their own parents: some are accepted while others are disregarded. The four types of parenting styles include Authoritarian Parenting, Permissive Parenting, Authoritative Parenting and Uninvolved Parenting.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Authoritarian parenting style normally brings about kids who are compliant, yielding and gifted; however they rank lower in cheerfulness, social proficiency and self-worth. Authoritive parenting style, on the other hand, tends to give rise to children who are competent, happy and triumphant. Permissive parenting style is frequently applied to children who rank low in self regulation, cheerfulness and contentment.

These children often perform poorly in their school work and also face problems with the authority. Authors state that the parenting style which ranks as the lowest among all other domains is meant to be an uninvolved parenting style. Kids lack self-discipline; they are less proficient and skilled compared to their peers; and moreover, they experience low self-worth.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Based-on these aspects, Baumrind said that many parents display different styles of parenting. In the 1960s, she carried out a research study on more than one hundred preschool-age kids. Through the use of naturalistic study, parental discussions and other research studies, Baumrind categorized four significant parenting dimensions, they included the following:

styles of communication;
nurturance and warmth;
disciplinary strategies;
maturity and control expectations.

Developmental psychologists are interested in knowing how children development is impacted by parents. Nonetheless, finding definite cause-and-effect relations between various behaviors of parents and later-on behaviors of kids is very intricate. The researcher states that different styles of parenting result in different children behaviors. The four parenting styles are used by different parents in disciplining their children.

Cohen, A.D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. Journal of Drug Education, Volume 27, 199 – 211.

This article explores how both parents and children see the styles of parenting, and how this evaluation is linked to educational accomplishment and substance abuse. Parents and students were surveyed; parenting styles included authoritative, permissive, uninvolved and authoritarian.

Children and parents agreement on styles of parenting was poor. Learners saw parents as being less permissive, less authoritative and more authoritarian. High marks were linked to child and parent conception of “lower permissiveness, lower authoritarianism and higher authoritativeness.”

Child alcohol abuse and tobacco use were associated with children’s conception of higher permissiveness and lower authoritativeness while parent conception of parenting style was not connected with child alcohol use. While one cannot conclude whether parent or child conception of parenting style is more accurate, child conception is more strongly linked to marks and alcohol use than the parent one. It is possible that parents can gain a lot from knowing how their kids perceive them and think of them.

Maccoby, E.E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017.

After realizing the significance of the four parenting styles of development of kids, it is hard to understand why parents do not use the authoritative style. According to this parenting style, the children are supposed to follow rules set by their parents. Unlike authoritarian parenting style, authoritative parenting style is more democratic; parents are approachable as they listen to their children.

When rules are not followed, parents are also more forgiving and fostering than punishing than they are using authoritarian parenting style. This approach leads to the development of happy, positive and competent children. There are reasons why parenting styles differ; some possible causes of these dissimilarities include size of family, background of parents, personalities, culture, socio-economic class, level of education and religion.

Style of parenting used by a mother can differ from that used by a father, thus forming a unique blend in the family. For instance, the father can use permissive parenting style, while the mother uses authoritative parenting style. The author explains that in order to build a consistent parenting approach, it is important that parents learn to work together as they merge different elements of their distinctive parenting styles.

Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children’s problem behavior. Child Development, 76, 1144–1159.

This article examined the combination of both fathers’ and mothers’ styles of parenting (affection, behavioral and psychological control) that would help in predicting children’s inner and outer behavioral problems. One hundred and ninety six children aged between 5 and 6 were closely followed up from nursery to 2nd grade to assess their problem behaviors. Parents filled a feedback form evaluating their styles of parenting annually.

As a result, mothers having a high level of mental/psychological control and a great affection towards their kids boosted both inner and outer behavioral problems of their children. The authors explain that the control of the child’s behavior practiced by some mothers can lessen children’s outer or external problems connected with behavior but only if there is a low level of psychological/mental control.

Smetana, J. (2008). Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence. Child Development, 66, 299–316.

This article explains the reports of parenting styles evaluated in “one hundred and ten primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M= 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers).” Parents evaluated the authenticity of rated disagreement in families, parents authority and rules concerning “24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues.”

The research study showed that “teenagers perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than parents perceived themselves, while parents perceived themselves as more authoritative compared to how teenagers perceived them.” Permissive parents are sometimes perceived as lenient because they do not have many demands when it comes to disciplining their children.

Parenting styles preferred by some particular parent distinguish his/her perception of parental jurisdiction; however, teenagers’ conceptions did not. The author state that differences were mainly on the restrictions of teenagers’ personal authority. Moreover, both the parental authority’s conceptions and the styles of parenting contributed considerably to emotional sovereignty and teenager-parent disagreement.

Kiara, T., Meghan, K., Brittain, M., Norman, S., & Jonathan, A. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24, 151-164.

Cognitive behavioral theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have defined a fundamental role of social learning in the OCD development. The article pointed out that learning through major developmental relationships, like parent-child relations, may possibly account for the materialization and maintenance of OC signs in maturity.

Baumrind came up with “3 parental authority models or styles, i.e. authoritative, permissive and authoritarian that varies on the two aspects of behavioral and foster control.” Permissive parents permit their kids to do everything as they please, while authoritative parents execute sensible rules, still providing a loving and nurturing atmosphere.

Authoritarian parents show parenting that is strict and values austere obedience to rules without much nurturing. Uninvolved parenting style is also illustrated; it is typified by little discipline, little receptiveness and lack of communique. While parents try to meet the basic needs of their children, they normally become disconnected from the life of their own kids. In some cases, these parents may even discard or disregard their children’s needs.

Results showed that the authoritarian style of parenting was notably associated with both “OC signs and OC beliefs (for instance viewpoints on the significance of opinions and personal dependability), even after controlling for general agony”. The article’s analyses also confirmed that OC beliefs act as a fractional intermediary of the connection between style of parenting and OC signs.

Hoeve, M., Dubas, J.S., Gerris, J.R.M., Van, P.H., & Smeenk, W. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles: Unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 813-827.

This study observes the “cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ styles of parenting and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14–22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval.” Mothers’ and fathers’ styles of parenting were linked to delinquency. The authors stated that “A noteworthy style of parenting by sex interface was established: slipshod parenting was linked-to males’ higher levels of delinquency and permissive parenting style was related to females’ delinquency.”

A lengthy relationship was discovered between fathers’ slipshod parenting style and males’ delinquency. Additionally, results showed that delinquency levels were the least used in family where one parent was authoritative, while the same rates were the highest in the households with two slipshod and uninvolved parents, signifying that the delinquency level was dependent on the arrangement of father’s and mother’s styles of parenting.

References

Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children’s problem behavior. Child Development, 76, 1144–1159.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Cohen, A.D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. Journal of Drug Education, Volume 27, 199 – 211.

Hoeve, M., Dubas, J.S., Gerris, J.R.M., Van, P.H., & Smeenk, W. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles: Unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 813-827.

Kiara, T., Meghan, K., Brittain, M., Norman, S., & Jonathan, A. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24, 151-164.

Maccoby, E.E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006-1017.

Miller, F., Vandome, A., & John, M. (2010).Parenting styles. New York, NY: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K.

Smetana, J. (2008). Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence. Child Development, 66, 299–316.