Fabrics finishes are also called routine finishes

Fabrics are one of the basic necessities essential to live a healthy life. We use fabrics for different purposes like apparel, accessories, home furnishings, kitchen linens, bed linens, upholsteries, car interiors etc. These fabrics are made of textile components like fibres, yarns etc through weaving or knitting. There are different fibres that are used in fabric production. The fibres may be natural or man made. Natural fibres are the ones that are obtained from nature, like cotton, linen, silk, wool, jute, ramie etc. Man made fibres are the ones that are synthesized using chemicals in industries, like polyester, nylon, orlon, acetate, rayon etc. The fabrics which may be wovens or non wovens can be given specific treatments to improve their efficiency. The treatments that are given to the fabrics are called finishes. Any unfinished fabric is called as grey cloth or greige fabric.A finish can be defined as anything that is done on the fabric to improve its appearance, hand, feel or suitability to the purpose. There are different types of finishes applied to the fabric which can be broadly classified as basic finishes and functional finishes. Basic finishes are also called routine finishes which are given to all the fabrics mainly during the preparatory process. Examples of basic finishes are scouring, bleaching, sizing, mercerising etc. Scouring is done to remove any impurities present in the fabric. Bleaching is the process of removal natural colour from a fabric to make is whiter. Bleaching is done only for fabrics that are to be sold white. Sizing is the process of adding stiffness to the fabric. There are different types of sizing agents that are available in the market like tapioca starch, rice starch, PVA, hot water starch, Cold water starch etc. Mercerising is the process that is done only to the cotton fabrics to increase its absorbency of dye and also to impart slight lustre. These basic finishes facilitates the further processing of textile materials.Functional finishes are the ones that are applied to the fabrics to impart certain desirable characteristics. Some of the functional finishes are waterproof finish, water repellent finish, stain resistant finish, anti-static finish, soil release finish, anti-microbial finish etc. Water proof finish completely inhibit the penetration of water through it and may also be impermeable to perspiration. Water resistant finish is given to the fabrics that have to withstand mild showers of water. But heavy flow of water will result in penetration. Such fabrics may be comfortable to wear since they are permeable to insensible perspirations. Stain resistant finish protect a fabric from getting stained. The fabrics with stain resistant finish can withstand the dis-couloration even if it comes in contact with oil, grease, liquids etc. These finishes form coating on the outer layer of fabrics and will inhibit the penetration of stain into the yarn or fibre level. Soil release finish helps in the easy removal of dirt accumulated in the fabric surface merely by rubbing or shaking. Since this finish holds the dirt only in the superficial level. Anti-microbial finish help to prevent the invasion of micro-organisms in the fabric.