in its simplest terms can be understood as a process of change or of
development or growing from one stage to another.
evolution of man is traced back to millions of years where the humans grew from
being a part of the family of great apes to being a distinct species known as Homo
sapiens or humans as we are.
humans started to grow and think that is from where we can trace the origin of
Management. Management was prevalent at that time also in one form or another. In
the study of evolution of man we study how they started to live in groups or
started to make shelters for themselves. They always applied some sort of
Management techniques or practices in their activities. As they started to live
in groups there always was someone who would direct others to do things there
of course was communication involved. While going through all these humans
identified activities to perform and then started to logically arrange them by
the method of trial and error into the best forms that would be used to
practice that activity or perform or complete that particular task.
in itself is called management- the art of doing things in a better way from
the previous one. That many years ago is from where we can trace the origin of
study of evolution of management is divided into four phases
The pre classical phase
the classical phase
The neoclassical phase
the modern phase
The Pre Classical Phase
pre classical phase is also known as Pre Industrial Revolution or the pre
scientific era of Management
the development of Management as a discipline started from the classical phase
only but there were many early thinkers and researchers who need to be given to
credit in the development of Management.
are various examples of Management or administration in this pre scientific era
like the guidance of Roman Catholic Church in the lives of its followers, its
military organizations, structural development of Rome as a city, its pyramids
and development of the Babylon Empire. Along with this there were many thinkers
also like Charles Babbage Chanakya, Robert Owen who made significant
contributions to the management thought.
study the pre classical Phase it is divided further into three time periods.
The Medieval Period
300 BC Christianity was legalized as a religion therefore the status of God
which was earlier enjoyed by the king of the Rome was taken away from him and
now Christianity was a religion and the God in there was the soul almighty who
was to be prayed.
medieval period also known as the Middle Ages 500 BC to 1500 BC marks some
important happenings in the Western Europe which led to changes in Civilization
and marked the origin for the studies of Management as a discipline.
Roman Empire ruled the Western Europe in the early days of the middle age.
Roman Army was huge in numbers to manage which the hierarchy and Administrative
Management System was introduced which is still used in management. In this time only pyramids were built. It is
not possible to build such huge structures without proper planning and
controlling of raw materials labor and other resources which shows the
functions of management being utilized in the mediaeval era. The journals of
commercial trade were also maintained as today are the accounts books.
the Empire grew it was divided into two parts, one in the west and one in the
east. But as the time passed the rift between the two sides started to grow and
there was very less of communication and more of fight for resources.
all this was going on Rome was still continuously growing in its size and its
sheer size made it difficult to be ruled. Also the Roman army, which once was
the Envy of the world, was losing its title. As compared to the size of Rome,
the size of its Army was continuously on a decline. To curb these German
soldiers were recruited in the army who were very Barbarian in nature. Although
they proved beneficial in the early days, later these only were the ones who
lead in invasions of the city of Rome.
also existed within the empire of Rome where the religious war was between the Christians
and the growing Islamic population which continued on and off for a very long
time where no one won but this did left a lasting impact on the European
intellectual life as they explored the Islamic literature during this period.
wars sensationally raised the church following therefore the loyalty of the
Romans towards the Empire declined further and fell more towards the church and
the impact of the church increased the social orders customs and even the
business traditions started to change from there Roman culture related nature
towards the nature of Roman Catholic Church.
Guilds which are defined as “close Association
of businessman” were formed. Their main purpose was to guide and protect its
members while providing them with fair remuneration to earn their livelihood.
The main objective of business plan was not to earn as much profit as possible
but was guided by the teachings of Roman Catholic Church where by a person was
never seen as an individual entity but was seen as a part of a close knit group
and had to work together for the overall growth and success of the group. There
was almost negligible mobility of labor but they always had job from the
industry at that time was small. There was lack of technological development
and lack of communication and Research, but the benefit of all this was that
there was always group
participation by leaders as well as
the craftsman or labor in decision making and management issues
programs where craftsman would teach the younger ones about the
craft this usually took place within families and very little at workplace
The owner and worker
relationships were based on the principle of cooperation where is party
worked for the benefit and growth of the other one the units were treated
more as families and less as formal organization
The feudal system was very
much in at this time where, the Romans had distributed huge pieces of land
to bishops or other important persons who had working labor to work on
their fields and had ownership of all the harvest and would allowed to
leave the labor on the land and survive from there as their wages.
But all this started to change as new development
the new technologies took place in the cities and the major population started
to move to Cities to look for a better life and better sources of livelihood.
Also the import and export increased rapidly
in this time period through the sea route which led to the development of Port cities.
People started to know about the culture, trade of different religions and
countries which led to rise of the period of Renaissance this period was marked
by great intellectual thoughts and changed economic policies.
Asia had become the kingdom of Khan’s under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who had spread his Empire over China Burma
Middle East Eastern Europe etcetera
The Renaissance Period
is a French word which is literally translated to “rebirth”. The Renaissance
period started somewhere in the beginning of 1400 century. The major thought to
rule this time period was that the early existing philosophies, thoughts, the
art and culture etcetera was descended upon man by God himself and it was the
duty of mankind to protected and to preserve it. This all led to the culture of
Scholars and literature readings and literature reviews of all that was unknown
or unread to common people before this.
and Roman literature and thoughts started getting read by intellectuals and
formed the basis of modern upcoming theories in various fields.
Florence is the city where this renaissance is
said to have been started. Against the earlier culture of working for the
society in a closed group, at this time people started working as individuals
having their own shops or factories and started to gather money for themselves.
led to the rise of rich people in the city of Florence and Italy overall. These people started to show their interest
in the artistic workings, life, paintings and books of deserving intellectuals
which helped them to earn a lot by their art only. This culture allowed to the
intellectuals to fully devote them towards discovering the art, culture and
history of Rome by travelling to various parts of it.
was the time when curiosity, observation and experimentation were promoted in Greece
and Italy. The artist Leonardo da Vinci conducted many scientific observations
of flying object in submarines. Galileo Galilee
Build a telescope and also proved that Earth revolves around Sun and not the
other way around. William Shakespeare was an artist of The Renaissance era.
Gutenberg made the most important invention of the time and that was the
were also many changes which happen in the way commerce happened at that
time. The Roman Empire fell in Europe
but it was able to keep it hold in Asia under the name byzantine. Import and export increased between Asia and
Europe. To be specific A lot of business was being taken over by the Muslim
rulers and the Byzantine Empire Because of the relations formed during the crusades
or religious wars.
of Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, Verona and Florence became the great leaders for
Europe Venice was the busiest sea ports of that time. As the business people
started to look for different roots where they could exclude the middle men and
gain maximum profit, led to the discovery of markets like China and India and
Although the international trade at this time
was increasing at a rapid pace and there was progress all around but the
workers in Europe were in a very bad condition which was getting worse. The bourgeoisie who use to buy goods from
craftsmen in mediaeval period and sell them to other people at this time turned
into rich wealthy bankers whom the church could no longer control.
than the monetary rewards the reason here was the growing roots of protestant church
(came into existence at the start of the 15th Century in Germany by the efforts
of Martin Luther King who challenged the old customs and traditions of the church
of following others saints in addition to the Bible, the tradition of celibacy,
the idea that Mary was the queen of heaven, the idea of a single church and
papal primacy) against the Roman Catholic Church.
reformation period is said to be started in 1517 with the publication of 95 theses
by Martin Luther, backed by John Calvin and many other reformers known as a
protestant reformers which caused a war for a long period of 30 years from 1618
to 1648. Martin Luther said that how one should conduct their earthly affairs
should be their own decisions and should not be forced upon them by the church.
although declared that man was the controller of his own life but they also said
that one was not to prosper at the cost of any unfortunate. But with the
passage of time the people promoting the protestant religion started to
interpret all the given thoughts in their own way which benefited them and
created a culture where the “concept of taking care of each other” started to
lose its ground.
earlier concept of A and B working together for each other’s prosperity changed
into A and B working in order to cut other’s share and increase their own
prosperity. The concept of cooperation got replaced by conflict.
individual shop and factory owners started to dominate the market and guilds
were completely removed. Unlike earlier
time when management and worker used to work in close coordination and had a
say in decision making, at this time workers were completely separated from the
management. The shop owners use to give
raw material to the craftsman and pick up finished goods from their working
place. One shop owner may be picking up finished raw material from several
places at a price offered by him and selling it further to customers at a price
decided by him. This way shop owners were making huge profits where craftsmen
were completely distant from management as well as market knowledge and were
not involved in any kind of decision making also.
in classical phase, the fall of dominance of Roman Empire, the rise of Catholic
Church as a strong controlling body, the crusades and then the rise of
protestant church altogether played a very important role in creating an
economic, social and political upheaval which changed the way people live and
conduct business within and outside countries borders, which Contributed
significantly to the management thoughts which our existence and implemented
Major thought Contributors
Charles Babbage (1792 to 1871) was an English mathematician and inventor who are credited
for the first automatic digital computer.
made major efforts to introduced advanced technology in to the existing
factories. He found that factories used
to produce, based on suggestions and estimates. he advocated that the estimates
or forecast should be based on strict mathematical calculations of how much is
produced every day, every hour, should
be calculated, working time, effort and efficiency
of every single labor should be calculated and they should be provided working
standards and should be given incentives against the performance which is over and above this
Watt Junior (1796 to 1848) and Matthew Robinson Bolton (1770 to 1842) in their factory at Soho, Birmingham used the management techniques such as market
research and forecasting. They started to think about various requirements to
make the production efficient at every stage and thus also started developing
plans for production planning, plant and machine layout, standardization of
components and parts, elaborate statistical records, maintenance of control
reports, cost accounting data, provision of welfare of personnel etc.
Owen (1771 to 1858) is known as the father of personnel management.
Much of his contribution is studied from the time when he purchased the New Lanark mil in Scotland. The working conditions
there were not so good, kids were employed and working hours were 13-15 hours
per day. Here he used ideas of human relations which include hygienic working
conditions, proper training, education of children, and appropriate number of
working hours. Provision of canteen, clean drinking water etcetera all these
are used even today and are part of legal conditions followed in many countries
in order to run factories. He also was the promoter of co-operative and trade
union movement in England.
Henry Robinson Towne (USA 1844 -1924):
H R Towne is popularly known as early “systematizer of management”. He was
an engineer by education and business man by profession and owned the lock
company “Yale and Towne”. He was the first to recognize that engineers need to
have the skills of management in order to develop further which he explained in
his paper “The Engineer as Economist. “He also introduced the idea of gain
sharing with employees and paying full wages plus incentive for completing the
work before the standard time. He favored organized exchange of
experience among managers and pleaded for an organized effort to pool the great
fund of accumulated knowledge in the art of workshop management.
Rowntree (UK 1871- 1954): Rowntree inherited a chocolate factory
from his family. Besides this, he was a
social reformer, researcher and a philanthropist. He published his book “human
needs of labor” in 1918 in which he described that how his ideas of labor
welfare leading to improved industrial relations led to improved morale and production
of labor in his factory. These were 5 day work a week, 8 hour work a day, pension scheme, psychology department
and profit sharing schemes.
The Industrial Welfare Society, The
Management Research Groups and the Oxford Lecture Conferences in the U.K owed
their origin and progress to the interest and zeal of Rowntree.
Sun Tzu’s The Art of War: Sun Tzu was a military general who wrote this book in late
of 600 B.C. This was not written with management of companies in mind but for
military organizations. But in today’s time its strategies are widely used by
companies in self-management as well as for managing competition in the market.
To be specific, strategic management very popular in current times is largely
based on the ideals of art of war. For example, it dictates to focus on your
strengths and opportunities and to exploit the enemy’s weaknesses and focuses
on coordination and discipline.
Chanakya’s Arthashastra: This book is a statecraft, developed around third century
BC. It deals with the governance of kingdom by a king or managing the affairs
of a state. It gives out that it is important to form and manage social,
economic and political orders in a state. There should be various departments
in order to manage work of state in an orderly fashion.
(One wheel can’t make a cart roll)
atmanam anvichhet sahayavan
(After equipping oneself, seek helpers)
api visistam vak-parusyam
Scolding employee with very harsh word can be more
harmful to the ego of the receiver than monetary or corporal punishment1
The Prince: This book
Niccolo Machiavelli in 1531 as
a secretary to Florentine republic, Italy. Machiavelli recommended qualities
needed by a leader to succeed which are applicable today also and that the end justify the mean and that a
leader should use fear, not hatred, to maintain control.
Sun Tzu, Chanakya and Machiavelli were not trying to development a theory of
management, insights teach us an important lesson about Management. And it helps
to think about management of organizations in the modern times.
Conclusion: all these
studies were developed at very distinct places in a haphazard manner and needed
to be joined and presented in an organized manner but these definitely set
stages for the development of management and its principles in modern times.