The UN has six principal organs established by the founding charter. All have their headquarters in New York except the international Court of Justice which has set in The Hague. The six principal U.N. organs are as follows:
1. The General Assembly
It is composed of all members, is the main deliberative body. Each member has to vote. It means once a year, commencing on the First Tuesday following September and the general debate is organised over period of 2 weeks, beginning from the 3rd week of September. At the start of each session, the Assembly elects a new President and 21 Vice-Presidents and Chairmen of its main committees.
Every year sessions may be called within 24 hours at the request of the Security Council on the vote of any country or a majority of United Nations member. Decisions on important questions, such as peace and security, new membership and budgetary matters require a two third majority.
Other questions require a simple majority of members present and voting The General Assembly has right to discuss any matter within the scope of the Charter with the exception of any selection or dispute on the Agenda. The Security Council may take recommendations on any such questions or matters. While it has no power to compel action by any Government its recommendation is seen to carry the weight of world opinion.
2. The Security Council
It has many responsibilities, under the Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function continuously. A representative of each of its member must be present at all times at UN headquarters but it may meet elsewhere as best facilitates to its work.
The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly according to English Alphabetical order and members names. The council consists of 15 members, 5 permanent members, 10 non-permanent elected for two years by a two third majority of a general assembly each member, has one vote retiring ,members are not eligible for re-election. Any other member of the United Nations may participate without a vote in the discussion of questions affecting its interest. Permanent members of security councils are China, France, Russia, U.K. and U.S.A.
3. The Economic and Social Council
It is responsible under the General Assembly for co-ordinating the functions of the U.N. with regard to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. It consists of 54 member states elected by a two-third majority of the General Assembly for 3 year term. One third of the member retires each year. Retiring members are eligible for elections each member has a vote. Decisions are made by a majority of the members present and voting.
The Council holds one week substantiative session, alternating between New York and Geneva and one organizational session in New York. Special session may be held if required. The President is elected for 1 year and is eligible for immediate re election. The U.N. has 6,300 dollar a year to spend for economic and social development.
4. Trusteeship Council
It was established to ensure that the Government responsible for administering Trust territories. They take adequate steps to prepare them for self-government or independence.
5. The International Court of Justice
It is the principal judicial organ of the U.N. It has a dual role to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by states and to give advisory opinion on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized internal organs and agencies. The number of judges in the International Court of Justice is fifteen.
The Secretariat Services—These are 5 organs of the U.N. which administer their programmes and carry out the organization day to day work with its increasingly staff of some 8900 at the U.N. headquarters in New York and all over the world. Apart from these important organs there are also many non-political, specialised agencies affiliated to the U.N.O. They are: The World Health Organization (W.H.O.) UNESCO and IMF.
The U.N.O. has successfully tried to prevent the out breaks of war on many occasions. It prevented a war between England and Egypt on the question of Suez Canal. Before this it checked the Korean War from turning into World War. It has so far succeeded in preventing Arab-Israel conflict from developing into world war.
Besides doing much valuable political work, the U.N.O. has also tried to remove poverty and disease. This work is done through its various specialised agencies. IMF has been giving monetary help to the underdeveloped countries I.L.O. has done much to improve the condition of labourers all over the world. Similarly UNESCO is trying to spread education. Apart from political work the U.N.O. is doing much useful work in social and economic fields.
There are many countries who are not satisfied with the working of the U.N.O. They point out that it is dominated by the American block. In fact the vote power given to big five is making its working ineffective in times of crisis. The Kashmir issue has not been decided so far. It could do nothing to solve the problem of violence and terrorism in Kashmir. It could not restrain Israel from invading Labnon and massacring thousands of unarmed and innocent Palestinians.
In spite of all these shortcomings and weakness the U.N.O. remains the only hope for the world. It is the only body which can bring about world peace. Recently its efforts for cease fire could be achieved between Iraq and Iran and in this way decade old war was ended. But in case of America’s attack on Iraq the U. N. looked helpless.
Let its members try to make it real world organization. Let the various nations of the world co-operate to make it success. The members of Security Council should be increased to reflect world aspirations. American influence should not be allowed to increase. It should not be allowed to play the role of the policeman of the world. Regional security system should be worked out.