Essay on the main branches of anthropology

Among these are included Ralph Piddington, E.A. Hoebel and Ralph Linton. The anthropological specialties or branches are specified below:

1. As specified by Ralph Piddington

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(i) Physical Anthropology

(ii) Cultural Anthropology

(a) Pre-historic Archaeology

(b) Social Anthropology

2. As specified by E.A. Hoebel

(i) Physical Anthropology

(a) Anthropometry

(b) Human Biology

(ii) Archaeology

(iii) Cultural Anthropology

(a) Ethnology

(b) Linguistics

(b) Social Anthropology

3. As specified by Ralph Linton

(i) Physical Anthropology Human Palaeontology Somatology

(ii) Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Ethnology Linguistics

At the outset, we have said that there is no general agreement on the meaning and definition of anthropology. There is much differen­tiation in the meanings in the European continent, the United States and the Third World countries.

In Europe, there is agreement on the two broad branches of anthropology: (i) physical anthropology, that is, biological study of man; and (ii) social-cultural anthropology. In USA, there is physical anthropology and cultural anthropology. So­cial anthropology or ethnology becomes a part of cultural anthropology.

In the Third World countries, however, there is a defi­nite place for physical anthropology and social anthropology. Ethnology in these countries becomes a part of social anthropology.