Rural sociology and urban sociology are mutually contributory. Rural sociology is helpful to urban sociology in studying such matters as-the causes for the growth of population in cities, the nature of urban problems and their solution, the reasons for the laxity of urban social institutions, rural trends in urban centres, the phenomenon of “loss of community”, etc.
Similarly urban sociology is helpful to rural sociology in studying such matters as-the limitations of rural life, the urban impact on the village, the ‘rush’ of people towards the city, rural change, rural problems, rural development, rural reconstruction, etc.
Rural sociology and urban sociology are so interrelated that one cannot be separated from the other. Just as it is difficult to draw a line of demarcation between the urban society and rural society, it is equally difficult to draw a hard and fast line of difference between urban sociology and rural sociology.
Urban trends are found in rural societies and rural tendencies are often continued in urban societies. In small cities and towns and also in sub-urban centres we find the intermixture of rural- urban trends and features which is often described in terms of ‘rural-urban convergence”.
A rural sociologist must have a basic understanding of urban sociology and similarly an urban sociologist must know the fundamental principles of rural sociology. There is no city in the world which does not have its rural background and similarly almost all the villages are influenced by the cities in one way or the other. This fact further emphasises the inter-relationship between urban sociology-and rural sociology.
Inter-Connections between Urban Sociology and Industrial Sociology:
Urban sociology and industrial sociology are interconnected and interdependent. Their inter-dependence is such that one is often looked upon as the branch of another.
Urban sociology studies the origin of the city, its growth, the city life, the problems of the city and their solutions, urban reconstruction, the city planning, etc. Industrial sociology studies the industrial system, industrial relations, industrial problems, industrialisation etc. Industrialisation and urbanisation often go together.
The growth of cities is associated with the growth of industries. Similarly, the growth of industries accelerates the growth of cities. It is from this point of view we can say that the city life has its reliance on industrial growth, and industrial life has its roots in city life. Industrial sociology and urban sociology coincide on this point.
Urban sociology has a vast scope. Industrial life is often treated as a part of urban life. It is not possible for one to study industrial sociology without basic knowledge of urban sociology. Topics of interest for industrial sociology such as-industrial environment, industrial advancement, slums, industrial relations, industrial unrest, labour welfare etc.-are also studied in a general manner by urban sociology.
On the contrary, industrial sociology which has a narrow field of study, concentrates more on the industrial behaviour of man. It gives practical suggestions for urban sociology in matters such as urban development, city planning, urban problems, etc.