(2) (3) According to Malinowski, there is important

(2) Magic is individual-oriented. A person perceives a thing in a par­ticular way; this perception works in his magical practices.

(3) According to Malinowski, there is important role of mantras. Mantras have the power to imitate the natural voice and, there­fore, for successful result of magical practices mantras are important.

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Second, the magician explains the present situation in this language and orders for the fulfillment of his desires. Third, the mantras refer to the name of those ancestors who have im­parted the magical skills.

(4) While chanting the mantras the magician continuously does some activities; for instance, he moves his hands, makes faces and ges­tures. These physical activities are believed to strengthen the power of magic.

(5) The magician exercises some restrain in terms of diet and sex rela­tions during the days when he engages himself in magical practices.

(6) Magical practices cannot be done at the discretion of the magician. There are some fixed days which are considered to be suitable for this. For instance, the last day of the dark half of month or amavasya is most suitable for learning and doing magic. Again, the days of Dassehra, particularly Navratri, is good for magical practices.

(7) Malinowski says that discipline is most important in the practice of magic. The first thing which is required of a magician is to spell out the objectives of magic. He has to perform them with great caution. A little fault could boomerang on the magician himself. It is because of this that the magician lives a pathetic life in his old age.

(8) In accordance with the objectives of magical practices the magi­cian makes physical gestures to empower his magic.

Frazer and Malinowski have observed interesting instances about the magical practices among the tribals of Australia and Africa. Nadel has also referred to magic in his description of Nupe religion. Evans- Pritchard gives elaborate descriptions about magical practices and its elements among the Azandes.