Overview and Introduction
Papastephanou’s article “Globalisation, globalism and cosmopolitanism as an educational ideal” published in 2005 is the centre for discussion in this paper. The article is focused on the problem of the failure to distinguish between the notions globalization, globalism and cosmopolitanism that leads to the failure to consider the place of the current education in the modern world and its role in the international affairs.
The article starts with the discussion of the John Dewey’s words about the place of globalization and the absence of the international interchange on the level of education and knowledge. The main idea of the article is to consider the connection between globalism and globalization with the further reference to the in factual, emotional and intellectual significance of globalization with the purpose to show that cosmopolitan pedagogical ideal must be taken.
Discussion of Diversity as Discussed in the Article
Globalization is considered as “an ideological device that states and governments employ as an excuse for imposing certain policies that would otherwise fail to gain public acceptance or support” (Papastephanou, 2005, p. 534). Additionally, it is important to state that some scholars consider globalization as the denial of the reality which should not be taken for granted.
Globalization should not be considered as the desire to do anything, it should be viewed at the events which are happening. The notion of globalism should be discussed as something different from globalization. Globalization may be viewed as the object of globalism which is defined as the ‘discourse in which the very idea of globalization is articulated, disseminated, justified, debated, in short, constituted as an object of reflection and analysis’ (Isin & Wood, 1999, p. 94).
Globalism denotes the increase and spread of education by means of globalization as the foreign experience has become really important for those who have the desire to study. However, Papastephanou (2005) says much about educational frames and ethical dimensions which are considered within globalization.
Taking a closer look at globalization and its impact on “unity and plurality, social and international justice, and emancipatory enrichment of humanity and protection of natural life” (Papastephanou, 2005, p. 535), the author of the article refers to the following categories which are going to be analyzed in detail, “nation-state and territoriality”, “diversity and homogeneity”, “identity and rootlessness” and “equality and life options” (Papastephanou, 2005).
Analysis of the Philosophical Perspectives Advocated or Otherwise Discussed in the Article
The nation-state and territoriality, according to the discussed article, impacts human understanding of the educational processes via a number of issues. First of all, the author of the article refers to the tribal instinct of the citizens which raises the competition.
Thus, the learning and educational processes are based on the national and territory assumptions only when it deals about career competitiveness (Papastephanou, 2005). The notions of diversity and homogeneity are closely connected wit multiculturalism. Searle, Rorty, and Taylor (in Nicholson, 1998) have managed to prove that multiculturalism impacts educational process positively.
These scholars state that multiculturalism should be considered as the new way of thinking on the basis of the old methods of teaching. They are sure that “A multicultural curriculum works very well in fulfilling the traditional goals of education in philosophy. It can assist the teacher as Socratic ”midwife” and ”gadfly” in delivering students of their narrow and uncritical opinions and awakening them to a world of intellectual diversity” (Nicholson, 1998, p. 6).
Identity and rootlessness may also be considered as the essential impact in the learning diversity as the increate of the national and international relationship encourages the educational process. Nevertheless, the ideas of equality and life options can be considered as the positive impact on the educational processes and the philosophy of education as seeing the national and international conditions in comparison, people want to learn more. Thus, the opportunities are appreciated.
Summary of Implications for a Specific Educational Setting
Thus, “nation-state and territoriality”, “diversity and homogeneity”, “identity and rootlessness” and “equality and life options” (Papastephanou, 2005) as the central ideas of globalization, the object of globalism, and multiculturalism should be considered as the basis for educational purposes.
Teachers are to reconsider the goals they set applying to the modern view of the philosophy of education. Applying to the modern view a person should be considered individually within the global aspects. The changes which occur in the world and the tendency to the globalization impact educational processes positively, teachers are just to meet those changes.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Therefore, it may be concluded that globalizations, globalism and multiculturalism has impacted the situation positively. The educational process based on the principles of globalization and multiculturalism allow teachers reconsider the principles of teaching and make those meet the necessity of the modern society.
To make sure that the new philosophy of education is met and teachers are able to restructure their plans, they are to consider different perspectives on education used buy the international professionals. The ability to apply different means and methods of education in the multicultural society is important as the processes of globalization dictate their own rules.
Isin, E. F. & Wood, P. K. (1999). Citizenship & Identity. London: Sage.
Nicholson, C. J. (1998). Three views of philosophy and multiculturalism: Searle, Rorty, and Taylor. Encyclopaedia of Philosophy of Education. Retrieved from http://www.ffst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/lib/exe/fetch.php?media=three_views_of_philosophy_and_multiculturalism.pdf
Papastephanou, M. (2005). Globalisation, Globalism and Cosmopolitanism as an Educational Ideal. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 37(4), 533-551.