Dwita Putri Dianingrum
Speech act theory is a theory that states an action or action that
accompanies verbal communication with its own message. As soon as communication
is not only with language alone but with action as well. The language we use every
day is the game language because of the rules. In other words, people start the
rules to do something with. Theory of speech was born from Wittgenstein and
In this theory, speech act is the
essential unit of the dialect used to express significance, an expression that
communicates a reason. Discourse acts, at that point it isn’t simply used to
point something, really accomplishing something. For suggestions of the
intended speech. The theory of speech acts of the mountain is not strong on the
individual reference of the symbol and the intent of the act as a whole. If the
words succeed, the recipient will understand what is important.
Whenever we create something
like, “I will pay you back”, we will show the size of 3 or 4 actions.
The first is a gesture of action (acting phrase) or pronunciation of simple
words. Second, proportional (prepositioning action) because we say something
that we believe will happen. Third, and most importantly from the perspective
of speech, we show an illusionary act (a discourse within the framework to
fulfill our hopes or desires) created to fulfill a purpose. And finally, you may point out perlocution (how
the discourse and the direct message recipient of what we do) refers to an
actual effect on the behavior of others.
In speech act, we can find two kinds of speech act, they are perlocution
and illocution. Perlocution
is an act whereby a speaker expects the listener to not only understand but to
act on that understanding. Illocution is an act where the basic
concern of a speaker is that the listener understands his point; to make an
appointment, a request or whatever
John Searle presents five types of illocution actions1.Assertive: a statement that makes the speaker maintain the truth of a preposition, such as a statement, a belief.2. Directives namely illocution which aims to make the listener do something that the speaker wants. Example: prayer, invitation.3. Communication is a speaker who declares something about future action. Examples: appointments, appointments, contracts, warranties. 4. Expressives are actions that communicate some aspects of a speaker’s psychological statement. Example: thank you, sorry.5. Declaration is designed for a preposition which, when with a statement so that it can be realized. Examples: wedding apps, appointments. In pragmatics and discourse act hypothesis, the term felicity conditions alludes to the conditions that must be set up and the criteria that must be fulfilled for a discourse demonstration to accomplish its motivation. Likewise called presuppositions.A few sorts of felicity conditions have been distinguished, including: (1) a basic condition (regardless of whether a speaker means that an expression be followed up on by the recipient); (2) a truthfulness condition (regardless of whether the discourse demonstration is being performed genuinely and earnestly); (3) a preliminary condition (regardless of whether the expert of the speaker and the conditions of the discourse demonstration are proper to its being performed effectively).
The next is about conversational implicature that will be explained below. Implicature is an expressed but not expressly expressed expression. Usually occurs in a conversation. There are several types of implicature, including:
1. Conversational implicature;
2. Conventional implicature.
But, now we are gong to talk only about conversational implicature. Conversational implicature is the many implications that occur in the context of a conversation. Consider the following examples:
A : Will Michel be
at the meeting this afternoon?
Her car broke down.
What B implemented or meant is that Michel will not come
to the meeting, because she got some troubles with her car, or Michel may come
late to the meeting.
Mrs. Rosita acts as if she were a rich woman.
means that she is not a rich woman.
NON LITERAL MEANING
A. Idioms are expressions of language in the form of a combination of words (phrases) whose meanings are united and can not be interpreted by the meaning of the elements that make up it.Example : 1. ‘The best of both worlds’ – means you can enjoy two different opportunities at the same time.
2. ‘A piece of cake’– something is very easy.
English test was a piece of cake.”
3. ‘To kill two birds with one stone’ – to solve two problems at once.
“By taking my dad
on holiday, I killed two birds with one stone. I got to go away but also spend
time with him.”
B. Metaphors are the words used to fabricate someone or something with others. It is almost the same as Simile. The difference is in Metaphor, we no longer use the word “like” or “as”. Although comparisons made or refracted are not so exact, but the use of Methapor is still frequently used.
: A heart of stone (from Rebecca)
He has the
heart of a lion
You are the
sun in my Sky
You are the
light in my life
She is my
East and my West, my compass.
C. The definition of metonymy is an allusion to which one thing is replaced by a word closely related to it.Metonymies are often used in literature and in everyday conversations. A metonymy is a word or phrase used to stand on top of another word. Sometimes a metonymy is chosen because it is a well-known characteristic of a word. There is an example of metonymy in Bahasa “pena lebih tajam dari pedang,” it is mean “pen is sharper than a sword,”.
“Pen” which means “written word.” “Sword” which means “military aggression and strength.”Here are some words that have a possibility to be use in metonymy :
Crown – a place for the royal family
The White House – a place for President and the staffs work
The suits – a place for businessman
Dish – for a plate of food
Ears – to giving attention (“Lend me your ears!” (Mark
Antony in Julius Caesar)
To use these words correctly, we must understand the context.