Due to the important role that lightweight
encryption techniques play in several real-time applications including secure
RFID tags , smart cards,WSN, etc. And in spite of the tight cost and
implementation constraints of high-volume products require specialized
cryptographic implementations. A numerous algorithms have emerged with
different techniques and performance. The authors review recent developments in
this area for symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, targeting embedded hardware and
software. A lot
of surveys and reviews that published in various world journals, some of these
works are listed below to help readers finding them easily.
In 2007, development of the lightweight block
cipher PRESENT signified a milestone in LWC with several lightweight designs
being proposed afterwards. A first survey on LWC was held in the same year 5, reviewing several symmetric and asymmetric
ciphers for embedded hardware and software.
In 2014 proposing a cryptographic protocol to
satisfy security and efficiency requirements , the outher use of ECC based cryptosystems leads to implementing
more efficient public-key cryptographic schemes , this led to that the result
is make other researchers able to classify the challenges over Provably Secure
cryptosystems or lightweight ones 6
the author present a secure and lightweight encryption scheme based on chaotic
map and genetic operations. This scheme is secure, lightweight and suitable for
use in WSNs 7 .
In 8 “Design and Implementation of New Lightweight Encryption Technique”, Author
present design of hybrid lightweight encryption system with
higher throughput, low power consumption and compactness. Each
algorithm performs the operation for 128bit plain text with 128bit key and
corresponding output text.
Syed Farid Syed
Adnan et al .in 9 “Timing Analysis of the Lightweight AA? Encryption Scheme
on Embedded Linux for Internet of Things” Author present an analysis of
lightweight asymmetric encryption, the AA? (AA-Beta ) .that may be feasible in
IoT. 99% improvement on encryption time and improvement of 94% on decryption time for 2048-bit primes.
this paper , Kurniawan Nur Prasetyo ST
et al. “An Implementation of Data Encryption for Internet of Things Using
BLOWFISH ALGORITHM on FPGA” Author present a blowfish algorithm is implemented
on FPGA using VHDL programming language. Using FPGA implementation is cheap,
easy to implement, reprogrammed and high speed. Reduce total encryption time,
give greater throughput and not affect avalanche effect significantly.
Nouha Oualha et al. in 11 “Lightweight
Attribute-based Encryption for the Internet of Things” proposed CP-ABE scheme
using effective pre-computation techniques. The key concept behind
pre-computation techniques is to pre-compute
and cache set pairs collected with commonly exorbitant cryptographic
operations. Pre-computation techniques based on the generator, the
preprocessing algorithms of the generator are executed by the hardware devices
or trusted authority. The pre-computation technique reduces the cost of CP-ABE encryption,
the pre-computation technique used less computation and less energy drain than
2017 evaluation of lightweight ciphers,
Software Implementation for wireless
sensor networks is done , the authors produce an implementation of lightweight block ciphers including KLEIN-80,
TWINE-80, Piccolo-80, SPECK (64,96) and SIMON(64,96) are implemented on the
Atmega128 processor in simulation environment of AVR studio 5.1.The evaluation
show that the SPECK(64,96) cipher has been the best value of the perspective of
energy and is appropriate for wireless sensor networks with the main
requirement of energy 12.
2017 a lightweight cryptographic algorithm for IoT
named as Secure IoT (SIT). The proposed algorithm is designed for IoT to deal
with the security and resource utilization challenges. The architecture of the
proposed algorithm provides a simple structure suitable for implementing in IoT
environment. Some well known block cipher including AES
(Rijndael) ,3-Way , Grasshopper
, PRESENT , SAFER, SHARK and
Square use Substitution-Permutation (SP)
network. Several alternating rounds of substitution and transposition satisfies
the Shannon’s confusion and diffusion properties that ensues that the cipher
text is changed in a pseudo random
manner. Other popular ciphers including SF , Blowfish, Camelia and DES use the feistel
architecture. One of the major advantage of using feistel architecture is that
the encryption and decryption operations are almost same. The proposed
algorithm is a hybrid approach based on feistel and SP networks. Thus making
use of the properties of both approaches to develop a lightweight algorithm that
presents substantial security in IoT environment while keeping the
computational complexity at moderate level 13.
Table 1 summarizes the main features of these related studies.
In this paper, we survey the main traditional and lightweight cryptography implementation
in different way.