Drone Gautam Research Scholar Department of Electronics

Drone 2 Drone Communication: A Review

Kamlesh Gautam

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Research Scholar

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,

Mody University of Science and Technology- Lakshmangarh,

Rajasthan, India.

E-mail: [email protected]


Vaibhav Sharma1, Rahul Mishra2

Assistant professor

Department of Electrical Engineering,

1Arya College of Engg. & IT- Jaipur

2Arya College of Engg. & IT- Jaipur,

Rajasthan, India.

E-mail: [email protected]


Abstract— The Drone to Drone communication system (D2DCS) is an important area of research. As a basic concept the vehicular ad-hoc networking technology is used in this D2DCS. In this upcoming area too much project and research work is already completed in USA, Japan and the European Union. In this study, according to authors survey, the research on deployment of (D2DCS) is required. To achieve lot achievements  in 2 Dimension and 3 Dimension. So that, the characterization of D2DCS, energy efficient routing in D2DCS and easy handoff can be expanded. The main target of this literature review paper is to explore the current ideas in D2DCS.

Keywords- Dedicated short range communication (DSRC),


                                                                                                                                                                 I.           Introduction

D2DCS is defined as a newly introduced communication system between the stationary and moving drones. This technology is used in few countries for army, navy, air force applications. It is also efficiently used in lot of industries to achieve economical and organizational goals as per requirements. It is also useful for the marketing application. In this competition timing the fast delivery is a crucial requirement of the market. So as to reduce the reaching time of drones the D2DCS is very help full. The concepts of this D2DCS system is also can be used in micro electro mechanical system (MEMS). Which is recently introduced engineering branch in many technical educational organizations across the globe.

D2DCS is such an advanced network which mainly provides Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services to the end users for providing fast delivery and safety. It uses different standards like DSRC and WAVE for fast data communication. Many routing protocols have been designed for implementation of routing in D2DCS. MANET routing protocols are used to implement D2DCS. But it is difficult to implement D2DCS using these routing protocols (topology based) because of its high mobility.

                                                                                                                                                            II.         D2DCS overview

(A). D2DCS architecture

D2DCS architecture mainly consists of Drones (D), Road Side Unit (RSU) and Infrastructure Domain (I). Communication is conducted mainly by using wireless standards (e.g. IEEE 802.11p). RSU acts like a router and has high range (coverage) than drones range. Drones are installed with an On Board Unit (OBU) for communication. It is also installed with a Global Positioning System (GPS) for knowing its own position as well as for tracking other drones. Electronic license plate (ELP) is also set in the vehicle for identification. Radio detection and ranging (RADAR)/light amplification by simulated amplification of radiation (LASER) technologies are also used for knowing the position of other vehicles. It is also supplied with high battery power. A Certification Authority (CA) exists in the architecture for providing services (e.g. security and TCP/IP) and applications.

(B) Intelligent Transportation System

Intelligent Transportation System 1 means that the drones itself acts as a sender, receiver and router for broadcasting information. As discussed earlier, the D2DCS consists of RSUs and the drones are installed with OBU, GPS, ELP and so on.


                                                                                                                                                         III.        D2DCS standards

Standards are used for development of the product and to assist users to verify and compare the products. Many standards are used according to the protocols used for example, security, routing, services and so on. There are many standards used in D2DCS such as dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and wireless access in drones environment (WAVE).



A.    Dedicated short range communication

DSRC 1, 2 is a standard developed by the USA. It is a short to medium range communication service. The US Federal Communication Commission sets 75 MHz of spectrum at 5.9 MHz for the DSRC. The DSRC spectrum has seven channels. Each channel is 100 MHz wide. In 2003, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) prepared the ASTM-DSRC which was totally based on the 802.11 MAC layer and IEEE 802.11a physical layer 3.



B.    Wireless access in vehicular environment

The main problem with the IEEE 802.11a with a Data Rate of 54 Mbps is that it suffers from multiple overheads 4, 5. Drones scenarios demand high speed data transfer and fast communication because of their high topological change and high mobility. For this, the DSRC is renamed to IEEE 802.11p WAVE by the ASTM 2313 working group. This works on the MAC layer and physical layers. Deng et al. 6 also proposed a collision alleviation scheme to reduce delays in the system. WAVE consists of a RSU and an OBU. WAVE uses the OFDM technique to split the signals.

                                                                                                                                                                        IV.        Routing


Routing is a vast concept used in the D2DCS environment. Many routing protocols have been designed for communication between the nodes in an ad hoc environment. In D2DCS, routing is a difficult task to achieve because of its high mobility. The main issues in D2DCS which require routing are network management, traffic management, broadcasting, mobility, topological change, quality of service, fast data transfer and so on.






Figure 1 The multi-UAV network architecture and necessary UAV internal units. Specifically, both the small and mini drones should be equipped with (a) sensor units and control and management units, as well as with communication units to fulfill the tasks shown in (b). Except for some essential sensors, such as the gyroscope, global positioning system, and radar, the drones carry specific sensors depending on their particular missions. Moreover, the control and management units are responsible for the stable operation and the collaboration of each part. The communication units are composed of multiple modules configured by various protocols, such as IEEE Standards 802.11 and 802.15, 8, 9 and long-term evolution, to support different communication scenarios 2. GPS: global positioning system.




                                                                                                                                                             V.         D2DCS security


Security in D2DCS 7–8 is a challenging problem for researchers in the era of cyber threats. The message passing from one drone to another drone may be trapped or hacked by an intruder or imposter who creates vulnerability in the systems performance. In D2DCS, many types of attack occur on the system like Position Cheating 9, 10, GPS Information Hacking, ID Cheating, Message Modification, Spoofing and so on. Malicious drivers can create problems in the traffic which leads to accident and traffic jam. Hence, the drones should use security mechanisms to resist these threats.

                                                                                                                                                             VI.        D2DCS projects


D2DCS implementation in a real time system is a challenging task. Many such implementations have been deployed in recent years and implementing such projects in a real time system requires complete simulation by measuring the performance of the system. Many new projects have been conducted by the government to develop ITS. The USA, Japan and the European nations are using the ITS systems by implementing D2DCS in the urban areas. Early developments mainly focus on the protocol infrastructure (WAVE, IEEE 802.11p and DSRC). However, now it is acquiring the new concepts of messaging system and application architecture.




                                                                                                                                                       VII.       D2DCS simulation


The mobility model 11 is a model or a set of rules for designing random network topologies by using simulators. It establishes connections between the nodes and performs some processes and activities between them. Role-based mobility model 12 is a mobility model which separates the nodes according to their roles. It provides different strategies according to micro and macro-mobility. The main limitation of this model ineffectiveness is that it creates difficulty in simulating complex traffic scenarios for example; it creates difficulty while simulating bridges, tunnels and so on. Liu et al. 13 designed a tool called VGSim which is an integrated and microscopic level simulation platform to model the road traffic accurately. D2DCS simulation required a complete, accurate and realistic mobility model which is gained by collecting patterns from mobility traces.



                                                                                                                                               VIII.     Future research scope


D2DCS technology is gaining momentum as drones are increasing in a rapid manner. Deployment of this advance network is a necessity for many safety applications. The future of D2DCS is very bright as new ideas and scopes are coming up in recent times. Researchers are working in these upcoming areas to provide safety and security to mankind. There are many research scopes which are to be mined to obtain new ideas and to provide services to the people.




IX Conclusions


In this paper, we mainly surveyed the fundamentals of D2DCS, its architecture, standards, routing issues, security challenges, current projects, simulations, emerging applications and future research problems. Researchers all over the world are mainly working on the current issues of D2DCS like broadcasting, routing, security, implementation and so on to expand the area of D2DCS technology. In the future, security is a main issue to implement in D2DCS because many new types of attacks are being generated. This survey helps future researchers to obtain ideas about D2DCS security. We have also discussed the current D2DCS projects running in some parts of the world such as the USA, Europe and Japan. Drone companies are collaborating with the WHO to design new architectures which provide safety to the customers and the drivers. We have also reviewed some simulators which help the researchers to select the best one for the implementation of D2DCS. We have briefly described the mobility model, traffic simulators, network simulators, isolated models, embedded models and federated models. We have presented the current and emerging applications of D2DCS which provides better services to the end users. At last, we have briefly described some of the future research areas in D2DCS.




                                                                                                                                                                    X.         References


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2     Kenney, J.B.: ‘Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) standards in the United States’. Proc. IEEE, July 2011, vol. 99, no 7, pp. 1162–1182.


3     Festag, A.: ‘Global standardization of network and transport protocols for ITS with 5 GHz radio technologies’. Proc. ETSI TC ITS workshop, Sophia Antipolis, France, February 2009.


4     Ho, K.-Y., Kang, P.-C., Hsu, C.-H., Lin, C.-H.: ‘Implementation of WAVE/DSRC Devices for vehicular communications’. Int. Symp. Computer Communication Control and Automation, May 2010, vol. 2.


5     Morgan, Y.L.: ‘Notes on DSRC & WAVE standards suite: its architecture, design, and characteristics’, Commun. Surv. Tutor., 2010, 12, (4), pp. 504–518.


6     Deng, D.-J., Chen, H.-C., Chao, H.-C., Huang, Y.M.: ‘A collision alleviation scheme for IEEE 802.11p D2DCSS’, Wirel. Personal Commun., 2011, 56, (3), pp. 371–383.


7     Fuentes, J., González-Tablas, A., Ribagorda, A.: ‘Overview of security issues in vehicular ad-hoc networks’. Handbook of Research on Mobility and Computing: Evolving Technologies and Ubiquitous Impacts, 2010, pp. 894–911.


8     Isaac, J.T., Zeadally, S., Cámara, J.S.: ‘Security attacks and solutions for vehicular ad hoc networks’, IET Commun., 2010, 4, (7), pp. 894–903.


9     Leinmuller, T., Schoch, E., Kargl, F.: ‘Position verification approaches for vehicular ad hoc networks’, IEEE Wirel. Commun., 2006, 13, (5), pp. 16–21.


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11  Harri, J., Filali, F., Bonnet, C.: ‘Mobility models for vehicular ad hoc networks: a survey and taxonomy’, IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor., 2009, 11, (4), pp. 19–41.


12  Wang, J., Yan, W.: ‘RBM: a role based mobility model for D2DCS’. Proc. Int. Conf. Communications and Mobile Computing, January 2009, 2, pp. 437–443.

13  Liu, B., Khorashadi, B., Du, H., Ghosal, D., Chuah, C., Zhang, M.: ‘VGSim: an integrated networking and microscopic vehicular mobility simulation platform’, IEEE Commun. Mag., 2009, pp. 134–141.