Many factors contribute to the spreading of a
disease it can be climate, flooding, the wealth of a nation or just taking care
of a sick person. Preventing an outbreak can also be a hard thing to do when
the country does not have the finances to prevent another outbreak or to
contain an outbreak. Ebola,
Leishmaniasis and Cryptosporidiosis are
dangerous diseases that are transmitted through parasite and can be spread easily.
Ebola and Leishmaniasis have some similarities to Cryptosporidium a disease found in the United
Ebola is a viral
disease that is transmitted from wild animal to humans then from human to human
(Ebola virus disease). This disease is severe and usually
fatal its apart of the filovirus family (Frequently asked questions).
The Origin of Ebola is unknown but research suggests that Fruit Fly’s may be
the host of the deadly virus. The most recent outbreak of Ebola was in the Dominican
Republic of the Congo in June of 2017. However, they controlled the outbreak to
the area to prevent it from spreading after only forty-two days from the initial
outbreak (Ebola virus disease outbreak). The most common places for an outbreak
of Ebola is in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinee. They have all had over 3,000
cases in 2014-2016(Ebola virus disease). The environmental factors that affect the
spread are that the disease is first contracted through animals that are
usually dead. However, the virus is being spread from animal to animal in this environment.
Some other environmental reasons are climate and water supply. Climate and water
supply create a problem because of flooding after a heavy rain can cause
contaminated water (Environmental factors). The social factors that contribute to the
spread would be the areas cultural beliefs and behavioral practices. They have
special burial practices that lead to the spreading of the disease. Also because
of these countries health systems, they do not have the money or health infrastructures
to help the people with the disease. This leads to people not being treated and
the diseases spreading (Factors that contributed). The only treatment they have
is fluid replacement therapy, kidney dialysis, blood transfusion, and plasma
replacement therapy. These help the chances of survival where these treatments
are available. They also have a trail on a vaccine in Guinea that seems to be effective
(Frequently asked questions).
world health organization describes leishmaniases as “a group of diseases
caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species” (What is leishmaniasis). These parasites
are transmitted to humans from the female phlebotomine sandfly. There are three
forms of this disease cutaneous, visceral or kala-azar, and mucocutaneous.
However, the bite doesn’t mean you will get sick you get sick from a Leishmania
infection (What is leishmaniasis). This disease is mostly found in East Africa,
Afghanistan and the Syrian Arab Republic. New cases have been reported in Brazil,
Ethiopia, India, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. (Epidemiological situation).
The environmental changes that lead to leishmaniasis are deforestation,
building dams, irrigation schemes, climate and urbanization. These all lead to
the spreading and worsening of this disease. The social factors would be the
poor finical state that the people who contract the disease are living in(Leishmaniasis).
Most of them do not have the money to help prevent the spread of the disease by
controlling the animal hosts. Leishmaniasis is treatable and curable but
requires an immunocompetent system because medicine will not remove
the parasite from the body. However, these medicines are hard to access in
these poor countries(Leishmaniasis).
is a disease that is very common in the United States. Cryptosporidiosis is
also known as Crypto. This is a parasite that causes a diarrheal diseases(Parasites).
This disease causes diarrhea, weakness, stomach
pain and cramps, along with fever and weight loss (Illness & Symptoms). Crypto
lives in the intestines of infected humans and animals. The infection is passed
through the stool of the infected animal or human. The environmental reasons
this disease spreads are because of flooding, contaminated water, contaminated fruits
and vegetables. The animals drink the contaminated water getting the parasite
and in the case of flooding, humans can also get the parasite from these contaminated
waters. The social spread is due to touching contained areas like diaper
changing stations or bathroom fixtures. Also just by helping care for an affected
person or handling an infected animal. These all lead to the spread of Crypto (Sources
of Infection & Risk Factors). Crypto is prevalent in all the United States and
most of the world. People with a healthy immune system recover without any
treatment. However, people who do need treatment receive fluid replacement therapy
and anti-diarrhea medicine(Treatment).
Leishmaniasis and Cryptosporidiosis all
have their similarities and differences but one main similarity is they are all
spread from parasites. The diseases are all easily spread and can be dangerous
for humans. The main difference between Ebola and Leishmaniasis compared to Cryptosporidiosis
is that Ebola and Leishmaniasis are found more in poor countries. This makes it
spread easier and make it harder to prevent outbreaks. Cryptosporidiosis is not
near as deadly as the other two diseases and is also easier to treat. However these can be dangerous when an outbreak
occurs when the spread of the diseases is not contained.