Design Considerations in Defining Vetronics Architecture for Gen

Design Considerations in Defining Vetronics Architecture for Gen Next Armoured PlatformsPrakash SadhwaniL&T Defence, Larsen & Toubro Limited, Powai, Mumbai-400072, India. [email protected]—Vehicle electronics (or ‘vetronics’) for Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) has evolved ever since WWI. The conventional AFV design focused on famous Iron Triangle of lethality, survivability and mobility. However, with changing battlefield scenarios and emergence of Network-Centric Warfare (NCW), there is an increased need for the AFV design to be integrated with Network Enabled Operations (the NEO paradigm) redefining the Iron Triangle as Firepower, Survivability, Mobility and Vetronics (adaptability, autonomy, connectivity). Therefore, modern AFVs would require a robust and extensive vetronics architecture as a key component for enhancing AFV’s operational effectiveness on the battlefield. The paper evaluates legacy as well as futuristic vehicle electronic architectures in context of gen next armoured platforms with their cause and effect implications. Finally, this paper illustrates some of the key design considerations to determine the basis of implementing an appropriate architecture standard considering the broad parameters that define system modularity and modern combat operational requirements as stated above.Keywords—AFVs, Vetronics, GVA, VICTORY, NGVA, LAVOSAR, CVAI. INTRODUCTIONWith emerging contemporary combat theatre scenarios, armed forces are moving towards Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) age. Forces now become part of a bigger network and no longer combat as individual units. Each unit acts as node in that network where information is shared at ease and firepower is called upon demand. This has led to the implementation of Network-Enabled Operations (NEO) 1 instead of conventional Platform Centric Operations (PCO). This has resulted in everything from forward operating posts to mobile armoured columns adopting a common, open network architecture philosophy.Key to this NCW fighting capability is the electronic architecture system. Electronic architecture enables each force to be plugged seamlessly into network backbone, and aids in sharing information among diverse units. Basic information shared includes ‘self-coordinates’, ‘Blue Force’ and ‘Red Force’. Further, by providing a simultaneous common picture at a faster pace, electronics architecture enables units to complete their Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) cycle significantly effective than those without 2. The traditional AFV design considerations of firepower, survivability and mobility are still important as they play an imperative role in executing the ‘Act’ component in the OODA loop. However, in order to achieve the complete mission objective in the changing scenarios, a lot of emphasis is now on the first three legs of OODA by deploying appropriate situational analysis based solution. Therefore, incorporation of vetronics and the need for integration of the various sub-systems becomes a crucial pillar of the Gen Next Iron Triangle.II. VETRONICS ARCHITECTURE: DESIGN PERSPECTIVEA. User RequirementsThere is a significant shift in user requirement towards obtaining reduced life cycle costs, interoperability, NCW and upgradability matrix while acquiring new platforms or when going for upgrades. Therefore, the Gen Next vetronics design is highly governed by User requirements as depicted in figure below:Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle : The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle : The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron Triangle: The Gen Next Iron TriangleB. System RequirementsAn integrated vetronics suite requires the use of a systems architecture to define the overall scheme of the system to meet user requirements. These system requirements falls under 3 4:C. Vetronics EvolutionThe vetronics has evolved constantly to keep pace with growing demands of User and increasing electrical payloads. Going forward, there are efforts to move from conventional powertrain to diesel-electric and subsequently to all electric power-drive. In addition, with laser guns, electromagnetic rail guns and electric armour in leap of faith, vetronics has to gear up to embrace all such add-ons seamlessly. The concept of moving to open architecture from erstwhile architectures will aid in decoupling disparate innovation speeds of software, electronics and mechanical systems and provide a common network and power infrastructure to accommodate all such through life technology changes.The vetronics progression chart shown below is based on study of various vetronics architectures implemented and/or projected for implementation on vivid platforms across different countries. The study includes Arjun (MkI and MkII) 5, FICV, FRCV; Leclerc, CV 90 (MkI, MkII, MkIII) 6 and PUMA 7; M1 Abrahms (A1, A2, SEP, SEPV2, SEPV3) 8; MBT-80, TRACER, VTID, Foxhound and AJAX 9; NAMER, MERKAWA 10 and CARMEL 11.D. Current & Emerging Standards in Vetronics ArchitectureThe major efforts in vehicle electronic architectures domain are:? UK MoD, Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA) 12,? USA standard for Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) 13,? European Defence Agency(EDA), Land Vehicular Open System Architecture (LAVOSAR) 14,? NATO Generic Vehicle Architecture (NGVA), STANAG 4754 15, and? Australia’s “Common Vehicle Architecture (CVA)” 16.While all GVA, VICTORY, LAVOSAR, NGVA and CVA standards define and promote open architecture and standards based on shared vehicle infrastructure, the implementation methodology in each differs.Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2: User requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that govern User requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser requirements that governUser 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RequirementsSystem RequirementsThe VICTORY architecture 13 17 is about adding in-vehicle network infrastructure (IVN) to platforms, and agreeing upon open specifications for interfaces. It does not emphasis for use of a specific software middleware on devices and encourages “inter-component interoperability”. The architecture provides shared hardware, services, and security protections as part of IVN. “Component Types” interoperate via network-based messaging interfaces with common semantic running “on the wire” protocols. The architecture defines messaging interfaces, which allows Victory to keep internal design details flexible. This helps in promoting component interchangeability, and supports “virtualization” of components 16.The GVA 12 focuses on system level implementation and adds parameters ranging from comprehensive HMI standard for crew stations to the platform infrastructure of power and data distribution. However, the architecture emphasis use of DDS-based middleware specifications and a common data model support interoperability between subsystems while allowing significant flexibility in system design.LAVOSAR 14 deals with analysis of current & future trends and efforts are to create a normative framework for European Member States. This architecture started with identification of standards and technologies forming the basis for the work carried in VSI, UK GVA, NGVA, VICTORY, SCORPION, AUTOSAR, CEN Workshop 10 – Expert Group 9, EDA FLSG and EDA EG20. This architecture also focuses on aligning and complementing NGVA (STANAG 4754) to address the broader set of requirements. This architecture also focuses on Bus-Centric approach. It defines concept of software layer approach to exchange the information, freedom to use of any appropriate middleware with DDS as preferred choice. The defined s/w layer acts as an API with minimum hardware specific adaptations. The architecture further defines critical function network such as browser based Web Services for Mission Subsystem configuration, CAN-bus for safety critical functions, and Ethernet based intra-vehicle communication network 18.NGVA 15 is an emerging standard under NATO Standardisation Agreement based on open standards to design and integrate multiple electronic sub-systems onto military vehicles that are controllable from a multifunction crew display and control unit with an aim to meet a larger set of requirements 9.The CVA 16 intends to evolve a common blend of GVA and Victory with a customization in the Australian context under LAND 121 Phase 4 and LAND 400 programs. The CVA development proposal refers to the overall architectural approach supported by some degree of formalized and documented standardisation, agreed among relevant stakeholders e.g. GVA & Victory.E. The “Universal” Design ApproachThe various current and emerging standards have a universal underlying principle i.e. “Open Interoperable Architecture” with focus on meeting core attributes. These core attributes are:? Safety Critical? Deterministic? Non-deterministic? High throughputi. Function-based Vetronics ArchitectureThis architecture concept maps vehicle requirements into various identifiable and segmented functions. These functions are inherent derivatives of system requirements derived out of user requirements. These functions for e.g. can be classified as:? Core Vetronics(Controllers and Displays)? High-End Real Time Systems (Armament/APS/IDAS)? Information Systems (Crew Stations/Communications/HUMS)? Automotive Utility Systems (Engine, Transmission, Driver Dashboard)? High Power Utilities (Electric Turret/Auto Loader/Electric Drive/AC/Winch/waterjet)? Video & High BW Systems (EO, SAS, DVE).The function definition will be governed by core attributes such as safety critical, deterministic, throughput rates, network redundancy etc. Once formed, functions, will act as an interface layer with the adopted architecture. In case of use of middleware approach, these functions willFigure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 4: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecture: Function based Vetronics Architecturedefine the exchange on Bus-centric data and in case of sub-system level interfaces; these functions will define the messaging interfaces on the defined protocols.ii. Implementation Concept for Gent Next Armoured PlatformIII. CONCLUSIONMoving forward, it is evident and imperative that Gen Next armoured platforms built on an open architecture based vetronics only will be able to meet the future needs of armed forces. Function-based architecture implementation enables System of System Integrators (SOSIs) to achieve their objective of implementing open architecture philosophy meeting core attributes. With this approach, SOSI can use technologies according to the functions that meets the core attributes of a desired system design in Open Architecture by creating a layer segmented by functions. This gives SOSI freedom to choose any flavor of implementation ranging from a use of middleware concept to a level below with component inter-operability concept.IV. 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Moore, Ph.D. Moore Integrity Engineering VICTORY Chief Architect, “VICTORY: An Open System Architecture for Military Ground Vehicle Electronics A Case Study for Modularity & Interoperability” in 2017 Ground Robotics Capabilities Capabilities Conference & Exhibition Interoperability Panel. 22 March 201714 Land Vehicles with Open System Architecture (LAVOSAR) – EDA LAVOSAR II Workshop #2, “Industry Workshop”, Brussels, 9th July 2015.15 NATO Standardization Office, “NATO Generic Vehicle Architecture (NGVA) for Land Systems – AEP-4754”, Edition A, NSO/1403(2016)LCGLE/4754, 15th November 2016.16 Michael Clark Thales Australia, Aubrey Jarkey Applied Information Sciences Pty Ltd, “Vehicle Electronic Architecture Supporting Digitisation of the Modern Battle Field”, Sep 2014.17 Mr. David C. Jedynak, Mr. Michael Macpherson and Mr. Bradley Dolbin of Curtiss?Wright; “Ground Combat Systems – Common Vehicle Electronics Architecture and Application”, 2010 NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium Vehicle Electronics and Architecture (VEA) Mini-Symposium August 17-19 Dearborn, Michigan.18 LAVOSAR “Land Vehicle with Open System Architecture”12.R&T.OP.336 – Public Executive Summary, BL 8387 T213 REP, Revision 1.1- 18 March 2014.Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 5:Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured :Vetronics Architecture Concept For Gen Next Armoured Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based) Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)Platforms (Function based)