Conventional set of instructions to process data. These

Conventional
Computers

Conventional
computers also called Von Neumann computers are machines that follows
a described set of instructions to process data. These
machines
use
a cognitive approach to problem solving.. The
system tries
to solve a
problem
sequentially,
meaning it
does one task at a time..The
problem
is
coded in program and data structures.
The
way the problem is to solved is
required and
written
unambiguously.

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These
machines are completely
predictable. Any
malfunction
is due to a software or hardware fault.

Problems
With The Conventional Computers :-

Not
able to recognise patterns.

Not
able to manage the different
kind of data
obtained in the real world.

Not
able
to express the “how and
why” questions in
a problem.

Only
operate within the parameters that were programmed into it.

Intelligent
Computers

An
intelligent system is a machine interconnected to other computers
having capacity to gather and analyse data and communicate with
other systems. Other criteria for intelligent systems include
the capacity to learn from experience, security, connectivity, the
ability to adapt according to current data and the capacity for
remote monitoring and management.

The
goal of intelligent computing is to understand the principles that
make intelligent behavior possible, in natural or artificial systems.
The main hypothesis is that reasoning is computation. The central
engineering goal is to specify methods for the design of useful,
intelligent artifacts.

Advantages

machines
will be able to do jobs that require detailed instructions

mental
alertness and decision making capibilities

less
injuries and stress to human beings

Applicaitons

game
playing by making them more realistic.

Speech
recognition

Understanding
natural language

Machine
learning

neural
networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and intelligent agents, to
expand their knowledge base.  These
computing techniques are able to work with problems and information
which are too large or complicated for humans to handle, especially
in a timely fashion.

Intelligent
agents

Intelligent
Agents: are
applications that perform repetitive tasks, without being managed by
a human.  The agents are
also referred to as “robots”, “bots”, “crawlers” and
“worms”.  

Distinguishing
factors for agents: These factors mostly have to do with
intelligent and not intelligent agents.  How well the agent
can adapt to fit the users needs. Also, how well the agent can adapt
based off its performance.  If search results are not
yielding pertinent information, the searching software has to choose
another strategy.  Moreover, how pro active the agent is.
For example email the user after the agent found a
target.    Additionally, how user-friendly the
agent is. Lastly, distinguished factor is function the agent is
performing.

The
concept of intelligent agent is central in AI.

AI
aims to design intelligent agents that are useful, reactive,

autonomous
and even social and pro-active.

An
agent perceives its environment through percept and acts through
actuators.

A
performance measure evaluates the behavior of the agent.

An
agent that acts to maximize its expected performance mea-

sure
is called a rational agent.

PEAS:
A task environment specification that includes Perfor- mance
measure, Environment, Actuators and Sensors.

Agent
= Architecture
+ Program

Four
types of agents: Reflex agents, model-based agents, goal- based
agents, and utility-based agents.

Agents
can improve their performance through learning.

This
is a high-level present of agent programs.

States
representations: atomic, factored, structured. Increas- ing
expressiveness power.

A
popular use for the software is shopping.  Shopping bots
automatically check web-sites for the best prices.  Then
alert the user through email about the best price.  Also,
another popular use for agents are from websites such as Monster.  At
Monster, the bots automatically check the job posts weekly.  After
the bots or agent finds a post that matches a description from the
job seeker, the program alerts the user through email. This prevents
the job seeker from check continuously. The agent saves the use a
large amount of time.
Example
of Shopping bots: The
bots on this page search out product and price information from
online stores and then report back, by email, to the user.   The
agents can adapt.  The focus can be on customer reviews to
shipping needs.  By delegating the agent to check prices
for example, the user can spend time on school, becoming more
efficient.

Utility-based
agents

Sometimes
achieving the desired goal is not enough. We may look for quicker,
safer, cheaper trip to reach a destination.

Agent
happiness should be taken into consideration. We call it utility.

A
utility function is the agent’s performance measure

Because
of the uncertainty in the world, a utility agent choses

the
action that maximizes the expected utility.

Goal-based
agents

Knowing
the current state of the environment is not enough. The agent needs
some goal
information.

Agent
program combines the goal information with the envi- ronment model
to choose the actions that achieve that goal.

Consider
the future with “What will happen if I do A?”

Flexible
as knowledge supporting the decisions is explicitly rep-

resented
and can be modified.

Learning
agents

• Four
conceptual components:

–  Learning
element: responsible for making improvements

–  Performance
element: responsible for selecting external ac-

tions.
It is what we considered as agent so far.

–  Critic:
How well is the agent is doing w.r.t. a fixed perfor-

mance
standard.

–  Problem
generator: allows the agent to explore.

Learning
Agents

Learning
agents has an advantage that it allows the agents to initially
operate in unknown environements and to become more competent than
its initial knowledge alone might allow.

The
learning element uses feedback form ‘critic’ on how the agent is
doing and determines how the performance element should be modified
to do better in the future.

Conclusion

Neural
networks and conventional algorithmic computers are not in
competition but complement each other. There are tasks are more
suited to an algorithmic approach like arithmetic operations and
tasks that are more suited to neural networks. Even more, a large
number of tasks, require systems that use a combination of the two
approaches (normally a conventional computer is used to supervise the
neural network) in order to perform at maximum efficiency.