Contents and field trips to stimulate new

Section A.. 2
Functions of formal group. 3
A2. 5
A3. 7
A4. 10
References. 11


Section A

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A group may be defined as three or more
individuals who interact, or cooperate in a familial, social, or work context.
Regardless of how the group defines itself, and regardless of the extent to
which its borders are porous or permeable, a group recognizes itself as a
group. Humans naturally make groups a part of their environment.

Characteristics of group behavior

1. Clear Expectations: The managers must clearly tell the team
members of the expected performance and the team members must understand the
reason for its creation.

2. Commitment: Team members must participate in the
team, feel that the team mission is important, and show commitment to
accomplishing the team mission and expected outcomes.

3. Competence: Team members must have the knowledge,
skill and capabilities, the resources, strategies and support needed to
accomplish its mission to address the issues for which the team was formed.

4. Control: The team must have not only enough
freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its
charter, but also the accountability.

5. Collaboration: The team should understand group
processes and work effectively and cooperatively with other members of the

6. Communication: To make team members clear about the
priority of their tasks, and receive regular feedback, team members must clearly
and honestly with each other.

7. Creativity: The team should value creative thinking,
unique solutions, and new ideas; and reward members who take reasonable risks
to make improvements. If necessary, it should provide the training, education,
access to books and films, and field trips to stimulate new thinking.

8. Coordination: Teams should understand the concept of
internal customer to whom they provide a product or a service. Team efforts
need to be coordinated by a central leadership team that assists the groups to
obtain what they need for success. The cross- functional and multi-department
teams must work together effectively.

Functions of formal group

Set specific Goals for the organization:
A formal organization has to set specific goals for the personnel working in
it. By achieving the goals individually achieved the organization as a whole
will be benefited in achieving the eventual goals.

Establishing working relationship: In the
formal organization, the primary goal is to establish an effective working
relationship and to establish a clear chain of command.

Create group cohesiveness: Creating a
sense of cohesiveness and belongings among the groups of the personnel working
in a formal in a formal organization. The employee interpersonal interaction is
important for the functioning of an organization.

Organizational Development: A formal
organization works on the organizational development by testing all the rules
and regulations and the chain of activities as a present.

Groups are a common arrangement in
today’s business environments. Any manager who works with or supervises groups
should be familiar with how they develop over time. Perhaps the best-known
scheme for a group development was advanced by Bruce Tuckman in 1965.

The four stages of group development

Forming: The first stage of group development is
known as the forming stage. The forming stage represents a time where the group
is just starting to come together and is characterized with anxiety and
uncertainty. Members are cautious with their behavior, which is driven by the
desire to be accepted by all members of the group. Conflict, controversy and
personal opinions are avoided even though members are beginning to form
impressions of each other and gain an understanding of what the group will do

Storming: The second stage of group development is
known as the storming stage. The storming stage is where conflict and
competition are at its greatest. This is because now that group members have an
understanding of the task and a general feel for who they are as a group and
who group members are, they feel confident and begin to address some of the
more important issues surrounding the group. Such issues can relate to things
like the group’s tasks, individual roles and responsibilities or even with the
group members themselves.

Norming: This is when people start to resolve
their differences, appreciate colleagues’ strengths, and respect your authority
as a leader. Now that your team members know one another better, they may socialize
together, and they are able to ask one another for help and provide
constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal,
and you start to see good progress towards it.

Adjourning: The adjourning phase actually has a
heavy post-training significance. As facilitators, we want to encourage the
group members to network and keep in touch with each other once they return to
their respective jobs. Often, group members can serve as resources and allies
to each other once they get back to the workplace.

Performing: The team reaches the performing stage,
when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team’s goal.
The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.

Diagram of stages of group development

A2. Learning is the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill
by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something which makes
people of good education and considerable learners. Learning cannot be observed
directly. We can only observe a person’s inference from that which learning has
taken place.

Diversity is the recognition that people
are all unique with their own frames of reference molded by both internal and
external factors. In addition to (DNA) an internal factor that can’t be
controlled in each person’s particular frame of reference is also shaped by
many external factors, including where a person lives, how he is raised, what
educational opportunities are available, etc.

In this case, the diverse which I have
highlighted that affected the committee actions are:

Communication Barriers: When you build a workforce with
employees from different cultures and countries, you increase the number of
communication filters and language barriers that impact internal and external
communication processes. Work cultures that are more heterogeneous usually find
communication easier because employees do not have to work as hard to overcome
language and culture issues. Some larger organizations hire interpreters and
diversity trainers to help employees work through communication challenges of

Cultural Resistance: When companies become more diverse, it
changes the relationships and nature of the workplace. These changes can cause
stress among employees and contribute to negative working relationships and
poor workplace morale, if not well-planned and managed.

Discrimination: Often, companies that intentionally hire
a diverse workforce have human resources processes in place to manage
diversity. However, companies that slowly become diverse without a strategic
plan may find more discrimination between managers and subordinates and between
employees. Consider that discrimination is unfair treatment of someone because
of distinguishing traits. Naturally, if you have a diverse workforce there is
more opportunity for discrimination since diversity is based on distinguishing
traits among workers.

Increased cost: All of these processes have direct and
indirect costs associated. Use of supplies, consultants and outside
professionals, and other materials are direct costs. Indirect costs include the
significant time involved by company employees providing and receiving training
and participating in other aspects of analyzing and implementing diversity

Learning process is the process of in
which an individual or group uses, adapts and reproduces structures or
appropriates the structures.


Learning always involves some kind of
experience. These experiences may be derived from inside the body or they may
be sensory, arising outside. Procedural learning or ‘knowing how’, concerns
your ability to carry out particular skilled actions such as riding a horse.
Declarative learning or `knowing that’, concerns your store of factual
knowledge such as an understanding of the history of our use of the horse. The behavioral
changes that take place due to learning are relatively permanent. Behavior can
be changed temporarily by many other factors and in ways which we would not
like to call learning. These other factors include growing up or maturation (in
children), aging (in adults), drugs, alcohol and fatigue. Learning cannot be
observed directly. We can only observe a person’s behavior and draw the
inference from it that learning has taken place. A distinction has to be made
between learning and performance. Performance is evaluated by some quantitative
and some qualitative measures of output.

 Behaviorist theories

(e.g. Modeling Bandura,
stimulus-response Pavlov, Operant conditioning Skinner

Principles:  Humans learn through trial and error.
Learning develops over time. Positive and negative feedback. Consequences.  Learning validated based on observed change.

Cognitive theories

(e.g. Field theory Lewin, Cognitive
discovery Piaget, hierarchal structure Bloom

Principles: Learning is based on an
internal change of perception & related to information processing…i.e.
cognitive tasks. Personal characteristics have an impact on how a cue is
perceived.  Predictable stages of
development of meaning, logic, reasoning. 
Concrete vs abstract.

 Humanistic theories

(e.g. Self-directed learning Rogers,
andragogy/adult learning Knowles, values clarification Dewey)

Principles: Learning is self-motivated,
self-directed, self-evaluated. Learner is an active participant, Learning must
be relevant to learner. Learning focuses on self-development.


An attitude is an evaluation of an
attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. Most
contemporary perspectives on attitudes also permit that people can also be
conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both
positive and negative attitudes toward the same object. This has led to some
discussion of whether individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same

If, I had been in Jose’s position, I
would have first made it clear to the group about its objective and the
expectations of the Organization. Secondly, I would lay down certain
assumptions before the group and ask them to discuss keeping these assumptions
in mind. The very first assumption, which I will lay down, will be that, the
existing models have become obsolete in the market. In such a situation the
group is bound to discuss aspects that are related to new designs. Being the
chairperson of the group, I would convey the outcome of the group decision and
request the unit heads of all the different merged units, to send back the
decision of the group for further discussion, with clear agenda.

Characteristics of a good leader

While there are many forms of leadership
that each come with a slew of personality traits, we determined, through
research and university feedback, a list of ten consistent traits that great
leaders leverage. These include:

Ø  Honesty

Ø  ability to delegate

Ø  communication

Ø  sense of humor

Ø  confidence

Ø  commitment

Ø  positive attitude

Ø  creativity

Ø  ability to inspire

Ø  intuition

Therefore, I suggest Jose that, there are
ways for you to improve upon your leadership capabilities.  Many say leaders are born not made, but we
feel that is far from the truth.  They
are molded through experience, continued study, and adaptation.   Andrew Graham, CEO of Forum Corp, notes “If
you do not see these signs in yourself, fear not It is all about getting
yourself in a better frame of mind and looking at the bigger picture to get you
over the neurological hurdles that hold you back from being a great leader.” Like
any craft, you must learn from your mistakes and continually work at
strengthening areas in which you’re weak. 
My advice to Jose is seek out a mentor that you admire as a leader. Note
down the characteristics that you feel makes them a great leader how do you
compare?  Chances are they weren’t always
a great leader, so it’s your job to determine what they did along the way to be
the leader they are today.

Many scientists say, the debate by
emphasizing “nature v/s nurture.” In this schema, nature and nurture are
inseparable. Some genes, for example, cannot be activated without certain
environmental inputs. The development of vision is a prime example of this.
People cannot develop normal sight without exposure to visual stimuli.
Similarly, some environmental inputs may be undermined by some genes. For
example, some lifelong smokers may never experience smoking-related illnesses,
and this may be due at least in part to their genes. Environmental toxins may
alter the expression of some genes, and genes for many behaviors presumed to
have a genetic basis have not been discovered. Developmental systems theory,
among other theories, presents an alternative to this debate that does not
require scientists to advocate either for nature or nurture.

Motivation is defined as the desire to achieve
a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal-directed behavior.

Three theories of Motivation

Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor’s theory of motivation
states that most workers are motivated solely by the pay they receive for the
work they do. He postulated that most workers do not enjoy the work they do and
only perform when given the direct reward of monetary payment. His ideas were
adopted by Henry Ford and other industrialists who paid their factory workers
according to the number of items produced. This theory lost favor as workers
became frustrated and production was frequently halted due to strikes by
disgruntled employees.

Mayo’s Theory of Human Relations: Elton Mayo’s theory of motivation
examined the social needs of the worker. He believed that pay alone was not
sufficient to motivate employees to put forth their best effort. He believed
that the social needs of the workers should be taken into consideration. He
recommended employers treat their workers in a caring and humane fashion that
demonstrates an interest in the individual in order to have them produce their
best work.


Maslow and Herzberg’s Theory of Human
Needs: Abraham Maslow and
Frederick Irving Herzberg believed that psychological forces drive human
behavior. Their theory postulated a graduated scale of human needs ranging from
basic, physical ones such as hunger and thirst to higher level ones such as the
need to be loved and the need for self-fulfillment. They believed employers
would see better results from workers if they recognized the various needs of
individual workers and if they varied the rewards offered to them.



Title: Chancellor of Germany

Country: Germany

Age: 61






With 10 years and three terms in office
under her belt, German Chancellor Angela Merkel is a strong and indispensable
leader in Europe. She has faced a host of challenges throughout her tenure and
come out on top: She helped hold the Eurozone together during the financial
collapse and global recession; she has stood up to Russian President Vladimir
Putin in his aggression toward Ukraine, and, currently, she’s managing Europe’s
refugee crisis. At her hand, Germany stands above the rest of Europe with a strong
economy and low unemployment rate. Though she’s not universally liked, Merkel
has proved a stabilizing force amid turmoil.


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