Clinical has been initiated to progress productivity in

Clinical audit is an imperative element of clinical governance and was announced to progress the supply of quality care for patients in the clinical zone. Supplying quality service in the Irish health facility is not a fresh idea. However, the current attention on clinical governance in Irish setting has resulted in necessity of systematic approach in re-viewing eminence. Clinical audit a stake of clinical governance and it is a device which has been initiated to progress productivity in the Irish health care division.


The idea of clinical staff involved in seeking to progress patient care is ancient.  However, the idea is getting further prominent in the ancient decades in the nursing profession with the importance on setting principles, associating practice and taking actions to progress quality assurance (Pearson, 1987., Morell & Harvey, 1999). As portion of clinical governance the National Acute Medicine Program was announced in the Irish health services in 2010 intended at improving excellence of care and safety, to expedite patient care progression in the hospital, to eradicate trolley waits for all the inpatients, to diminish overdue discharges and thereby diminish expenses, improve access to diagnostics (Vetter, 2003). The acute medicine program delivers a context to rally standardized patient care and endorses for the distribution of quality driven care for acutely sick patients in the hospital situation and thereby accelerate their swift return to their community (Bryan, 2010).

The idea of clinical audit arose from clinical governance context to improve evidence-based clinical practice and excellence in health care distribution (DOH, 1999., Thomas, 1999., Stephen & Bick, 2002). The evidence based practices in nursing confirms the interventions engaged were clinically proven, which health professionals were mindful of the present trends in patient and research (Gray, 2001). Clinical audits (Medical or Nursing) are the vital portion of the constant quality upgrading process which emphasis on precise issues or aspects of health care and clinical practice in contrast to set standards aimed at executing the alteration in patient care (Williams & Currie, 2003). The purpose of the audit is to focus the differences among actual practice and standard in direction to recognise the measures to be taken to advance the quality of care (Esposito & Canton, 2014). A distinguishing characteristic of clinical audit is the expertise of the initiative, which is intensely linked to clinical competency of the contestants, secrecy of the outcomes and quality of the experts (NICE, 2002). In terms of methodology the clinical audit contains of a quality loop or phases of constant clinical audit sequence (Appendix-Figure 1). The phases are intersected and constant process to guarantee enhancements have been executed. If the progression is fragmented in any phase, then the improvements are challenging to accomplish.


Codes of the clinical audit

Step One: Organizing for the audit

For prosperous implementation of the clinical audit ample preparation is essential. Recognising the subject based on the sufficiency of the care process is fundamental to gain ample data and should be of great clinical primacy (Benjamin, 2008). Mainly the communal difficulties which the clinical zone would be dared with, such as increased workload, monetary over spending, lessening in resources and patient care concerns. The appropriate assortment of the topic is an important so that the audit approach can be properly designated (Lorenzo & Hanson, 2008). Likewise, the health institute should clearly state the capitals accessible to conduct and support the audit and the staff should be appropriately educated to cope a project such as education and teaching on clinical audit methods, enabling and statistics management (Baker et al. 1995 & Buttery, 1998).

Step Two: Setting criteria and standard

When the audit topic has been well-defined, the subsequent step is to set the standard which should be paralleled with the present clinical practice. The indicators an adjustable which should be used to define the difficult process and measure variations to well-defined standards in order gain and keep the variations (Bursgess, 2011). The audit criteria should be proof-grounded and it should reveal best practice (De Stampa et al. 2009). The audit standard is outcome attained based on the precise standards and which should be measured in percentages (Benjamin, 2008). The standard and criteria are one of the critical facts in the clinical audit strategy and it anticipates the teamwork of all staff in the unit. In the audit the standards are picked from universal or state recommendations, from other health care amenities and from studies (Baker & Fraser, 1995 & Hearnshaw et al. 2001).



Step Three: Data collection

Afore collecting the statistics cautious evaluation of variables and the kind of examination conducted is vital to evade the gathering of unnecessary statistics (Lubrano et al. 1998). Additionally, the segment of specimen and resources existing should be inspected as it may vary the dependability of the figures (Cambell, 1993). The figures gathering design is should be properly selected which may be qualitative or measureable and figures gained by opinion poll method, interviews or by day-to-day assessment. The aim of the figures collection should be revealed to patients or staff depend on the kind of audit executed (Layman, 2008).

Step Four: Data analysis and implementation of changes

Data analysis is the principal topic of clinical audit. In this stage the team professionals associate the figures with the pre-set standards (Robertson, 1999)).  The analysis should be cautiously assessed to explore whether the standards are attainable or non-attainable. The audit squad should offer feedback to the staff or the service users in relation to intervention and recommendation (Jamtvedt et al. 2006).

Step Five: Monitoring the audit effectiveness

Monitoring of implementing policies and intermittent authentications are crucial to guarantee the efficacy of alteration announced (NICE, 2002). Idyllically, the figures collection and organizational strategy should be alike to the former audit, so that the audit outcomes are corresponded.


In the acute medical venue the issue selected for the audit was late discharge. The problem recognized the issue was due to incorrect choice of patients to acute medical wards from the emergency area to diminish the overcrowding (Dyer, 2015). Elderly patients care in acute medical ward possibly tip to late discharges as they need specialty services to assist their discharge. The staffs were educated in each shift to measure the patients who are remaining more than 48 hours in the short stay unit (SSU) against national acute medicine program standards and to enter the verdicts in the safety-cross or key performance indicators. On daily basis the shift manager or the staff should assign the indicator either green or red (Green indicates patient discharged from SSU inside the 48 hours and red indicates patient halts more than 48 hours).

The figures collected in the unit by day-to-day assessment and finish of every month the figures collected and compared once-a-month. The staffs are encouraged to highpoint in the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for any patient halts in excess of 48 hours in the unit. The audit outcomes are examined in computer software named SPSS and outcomes from three month audit are compared in placing them in the trend graph. The outcomes are revealed to the staff and are exhibited in the quality initiative board. The action plan for each concern dispersed and staffs is educated on quality development. The multidisciplinary tactic was encouraged to endorse the appropriate movement of patients. The patients who required specialty care should be sent to the suitable specialty. The concerns that hinder the movement of discharges in the hospital settings are stressed such as staff scarcities, incorrect bed occupants, growing elderly population per capita, absence of existing resources, increased bed demands and recommendations for improvements are proposed.


Implications for practice

The audits and feedback can have a slight to modest effect in improving professional practice. The rigorous and energetic feedback ways create little clinical effectiveness. Though, audits are normally used in the context of governance and are important in checking the effectiveness of executing alteration. The consequence of audit might be enormous when staff is vigorously participating and taken responsibilities for the proposed revolution.

Audits can be effective in improving professional practice and quality in the health care organization. The provision of feedback and staff education audit effectiveness likely to be larger. Usually, the audit is stated in the context of governance and it is crucial to understand when efforts to change practice are desired (Hanskamp-Sebregts et al. 2013). The obvious feedback is desired to change practice and it is the accountability of all the health professionals. Perhaps, sharing the audit result with staff at consistent intermissions may results in significant improvement in culture revolution (Yorston & Wormald, 2010).






Healthcare Risk management

The health division today formed differently from what was present in the past quarter of an era. Patients or a clinical staff is more conscious of their privileges and demands related to their profession. The regulations and punitive dealings have also played a substantial role in the makeover of the health sector. Henceforth, the idea of hazard management in the clinical governance agenda has become a significant element to improve patient protection and quality (Finkelman et al. 2006). Hazard management is defined as the structure which seeks to develop greatest, excellence, and responsible practice amongst healthcare professionals to escape or lessen the incident of contrary events (McSherry, 2004). Hazard to patients, staff, and organizations are prevalent in health care. The title role of trained healthcare hazard managers is to evaluate, articulate, implement, and monitor hazard management strategies with the aim of lessening the exposure. The profits of hazard management are numerous priorities of a healthcare organization, such as price, security, and patient care. According to the reading directed by  Briner et al. (2013) clinical governance clarifies more about hazard management, where health care experts are continuously managing hazards at individual and commercial levels.  The similar reading also clarifies the clinical hazard as a alteration from the scheduled treatment. 

Hazard management is every person’s accountability, individuals at all ranks can provide detained answerable for it. Nurses employed in the healthcare setting preserve their patient harmless by hazard management. Nurses who are employed closely with the patients assess the clinical environment for any hazard or harm, apply their elementary understanding of probable hazards and take actions to avert them before they extent the patients (Verbano & Taurra, 2010). Hazard management is used to detect and to proactively diminish unimagined adverse actions and other safety hazards to patients and staff.

Steps in the Risk management process

The objective of the hazard management method is to diminish the chances of a specific hazard to a nominal and hold answerability for it. The idea of Hazard management should amend in the health division and that health experts should admit the point that it is not a culpability culture rather it increases patient security. According to Feeney & Murphy (2013) the stages are itemized below;


Step one: Identify the risk

The basic role in recognising hazard is to gather the info, interactive, and sharing the info with the service users by proactively speaking the problems in hazard management. By gathering all the info and sharing them by incident reports, conducting clinical audits, in grievance form, and by hazard assessment patient security in the health settings are guaranteed. The info should be communicated by information governance and according to the appropriate protocol (WorkSafe Act, 2012).

Step Two: Analyse the Risk

Human errors are so common in the health care division and each expert make errors. Though, the health experts anticipate the human error and attempt to evade from causing damage. While examining the hazard the staff should reflect the degree and span of the hazard, people who are supplementary susceptible to the hazard and the complexity of the hazard. The common hazard analysis devices used in health care are Root cause analysis (RCA), Fish bone diagram and Swiss cheese model (Card, 2013). The RCA was extensively used in industrial calamities, presently this method experienced an error analysis tool in health care. Fish bone Diagram is being used to recognise the numerous contributing aspects behind every problem (Wakefield et al., 2005). The Swiss cheese model recognises the numerous mistakes and system defects of a critical occurrence (Karl & Karl, 2012). Risk matrix is used in hazard assessment to mark several stages of hazard to surge the visibility of hazard and so helps towards verdict making (Thomas et al. 2000).

Step Three: Control the risk

The hazard is controlled in the clinical location by stick to to the institutional policies and guidelines, by compulsory training and constant professional development program, in-service education, by behavioural and traditional alteration (HSE, 2011).

Step Four: Evaluation

The hazard evaluation is executed by re-auditing, revising the incidence and by monitoring the patient improvement in quality and security of care (Heinz, 2010). The evaluation process too aids to recognise system improvements, prioritize the distribution assets, recognise educational requirements, and develop upcoming policy (Wolff & Taylor, 2009).

Ample training for healthcare experts is crucial in averting the hazard and improves excellence care. The quality assurance program for instance hazard management creativities should be a fragment of occupational education in the health locations. Nurses have a very significant part to play in clinical hazard management and endorsing patient security in health care location. The health governments must confirm that the education presented to the health experts are evidence-based and intended in such a way that will permit nurses to improve competences to respond efficiently to the multidimensional and compound demands of the service users.


In acute care location fall hazard management was presented to improve the patient security and quality. Established on the Risk management process (HSE, 2011) this quality improvement creativity was presented.  Falls and linked difficulties, most frequently reported adverse events amid adults in the health care location. The unit was observant on advancing dimension and avoidance of falls as this topic needs delicate dealings and nurses perform a key character in this section of patient care (Quigley et al 2007 & White et al. 2016). Falls can be categorized as predicted, unintended, and physiological, though, not all falls can be prohibited (Briner & Kessler, 2013). The taster group selected for the study is all inpatients in the unit. The hazard identified via incident reports and examined by using Root cause analysis method. The clinical audit piloted in the unit as there were insufficient events of falls adversative events.

The shared hazard factors were identified are gait imbalances, former account of falls, optical impairment, polypharmacy, giddiness, orthostatic hypotension, functional limits, intellectual impairment, diabetes, and advanced age (Tinetti et al. 2010). The degree of damage was described in relations of the Joint Commission of International scoring (JCI) method (JCI, 2010). The instant measures and anticipatory measures have recognised to evade the re-occurrence. The nurses and care workers are given training and education on how to avert falls and actions to evade the happening. Numerous readings have recommended that there has been a noteworthy relationship amid falls and short staffing (Lake et al. 2010). Hence, cohorting the patients in the unit were recommended to lessen the occurrence in the case of staff scarcity. As a preventative intervention the patients are delivered orientation, access to call bell, individual objects such as hearing aids, glasses, and walking aids, patients with falls risk are delivered with non-slip footwear, minimization of the use of restraints, use of fall alarms, falls mats, and the staff is directed to do regular rounds in the unit (Kalyani et al. 2010). The unit had a falls risk register and the outcomes were communicated with the staff intermittently all through the year.

The hazard management process helps the health experts to deliver tremendous, harmless, efficient, and operative care. Health and clinical service provision systems are obliged to deliver a comprehensive atmosphere for all patients and staff.  For executing effective change and enhancement of patient security in the health settings, which need to start tactics and real plans. The clinical staff should be sound educated and trained to altered hazard management guidelines. Though, the imprint of hazard and its management dealings may differ from one another. So, patient security culture should be established grounded on clinical governance policy. Readings have reported that providing appropriate education to the staff can outcome in the enhancement of patient security.


In conclusion, the audits have remarkable influence on quality and security of patient care in the clinical location. Prompt intermittent audit assimilated into a quality development process has evidenced to be a dominant tool to implement and endure improvement. Clinical audit is about computing the quality of care. Clinical audits would help the association meet standards and set primacies to make improvements. Furthermore, the operative implementation of clinical hazard management, security of patient and staff.