Career Episode 1 v Introduction CE 1.1 In

Career Episode 1

v  Introduction

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CE 1.1

In this career episode, I have provided the
details of my project; Design and Analysis of Main Rotor Blade of Helicopter
with Maximum All-Up-Weight of 1500 kg. I completed this project while I was enrolled
in the 4-year bachelor’s program at C.M
engineering College. I carried out this project from 08.02.2012 to 07.03.2012.
I was an aeronautical engineering student at that time.  


CE 1.2

C.M Engineering College is affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University, Hyderabad, India. The institute offers a vast number
of courses and produces competent engineers every year. C.M Engineering College
has departments of some renowned engineering fields like Computer Science,
Electronics, and Aeronautics. They provide specialization in all the offered
fields by exploring the capabilities of their students and encouraging their
research skills. All the projects that I accomplished while studying in this
institute transformed me into a skilled engineer.    

CE 1.3

The main objective of this project was to design the rotor system
of the helicopter to provide it with the lift. The scope of the project
involved the sizing of helicopter rotor wing with provided specifications. For
the light utility helicopter, the All-Up-Weight was kept at 1500 kg, the range was 550 km, endurance of 3.2 hrs, a service ceiling of 5500 m, and cruising speed
of 205 kmph. The designing and analysis
process was carried out using UNIGRAPHICS and ANSYS.

CE 1.4

During this project, the following responsibilities were handed
over to me;

Conducted a
thorough research to start the designing of main rotor blade

Performed a
detailed analysis along with the aerodynamics group

Created drawing
and designs for the rotary wing

Worked at the
rotary wing design and research center of
the department

punctuality and good conduct during the project and coordinated effectively
with the team

specifications of the project and performed cost analysis to keep the cost

Designed the
rotor blade using a software after getting proper training

Updated my team
members on all the procedures and encouraged their participation in project

Submitted project
related documents like proposals and reports

Conducted formal
meetings with the project supervisor to ensure the activities were carried out

CE 1.5

My position in the project team is shown below;

v  Personal
Engineering Activities


begin with the design of rotor blade, I went through the project specifications
and consulted them throughout the designing process. I conducted trade studies
and compared the different characteristics of a helicopter
with respect to the all-up-weight. I plotted graphs maximum take-off Weight
with parameters like empty weight, main rotor diameter, main rotor rpm, main
rotor area, disc loading, power loading, power, chord, blade area, tip speed,
and MR Dia to demonstrate their relationship. I also evaluated performance
characteristics like range, endurance, service ceiling, and cruising speed. I
plotted graphs for the helicopters to demonstrate their tail rotor
characteristics. After preparing all these plots, I observed general trends and
estimated the values of the required parameters.


I moved on to the main rotor sizing. I tabulated area constants of various
blades with respect to variations in power and chord. I plotted the points from
the table and demonstrated the direct relationship between chord and power
required for certain blade areas. Then, I plotted the points while keeping the
area constant and demonstrated the inverse relationship between radius and
power required. In this way, I estimated the blade area of 3.9 sqm for my rotor
blade design.


tabulated the data for the helicopters with two and three number of blades. I
used less number of blades as they were low in cost, had low hub drag, low hub
weight, less number of chords, and less blade vortex intersections. I plotted
the points between Max TOW and radius for a helicopter with two blades,
weighing 1.5 ton and got the radius of 5.1 m. For three blades, I got 4.82 m
radius. I tabulated my estimations in a table and plotted the points to obtain
general trend lines. These helped me to define the general characteristics of comparable helicopters.


estimated the autorotative index for different maximum tip speeds and
calculated the figure of merit which was the ratio of ideal power consumed by
the rotor to the actual power of the rotor. I demonstrated the relationship
between the figure of merit, power
loading, and disc loading via a graph. I performed computer-aided designing
using UNIGRAPHICS. Prior to using the software, I took proper training and
watched multiple tutorials to get a better hold of this tool. I used the
package for modeling, drafting, and
printing my design. I used one other software for building, solving, and post-processing my model which was the ANSYS
database. I gathered information on this tool via the internet. This software helped me a lot in calculating the required
parameters for this project such as force and pressure.


from the calculations, I was able to produce characteristic graphs in this
project which gave me the values for blade area, chord, tip speed, number of
blades, and radius. While performing structural analysis on main rotor blades,
I came across the problem of structural deformation. The value recorded was

 mm deformation for the maximum pressure of 15
MPa. I reported this problem to the project supervisor and immediately called a
meeting. The matter was subjected to brainstorming among the team and everyone
proposed unique ideas of solving it. Finally,
I came up with the idea of fixing the blade tip and main rotor hub. The problem
was resolved within a matter of hours and weight was added to the rotor hub.


problem that I encountered was regarding the number of blades. At first, the
number of blades that were selected was four. But during experimentation, I
found that the power required for the blades was very high. This problem was
reported to the supervisor and discussed among the team members. I tabulated
the values for two, three, and four numbers of blades. I plotted the graph for
each quantity and found that two blades were also inefficient for use as they
required large radius. The number of blades that satisfied the project’s
criteria was three. In this way, my analysis helped to choose the suitable
number of blades and saved extra costs.


project was a great learning platform for me as I had to go through plenty
internet articles, scholarly publications, existing designs, and other
references to help me get a clear idea of what I should do in this project.
Apart from this, I was well in contact with my project guide and seniors who
resolved my queries by enlightening me with their experiences. I used both
offline and online sources to study for this project. I studied the basic
overview of helicopters, its working mechanism, and electronic design to get a
better insight on the project. I
conducted a research on the rotor system, engines, configurations used,
different parameters, flight controls, flight conditions, parts and functions
of main rotor blades, rotor configurations, and airfoils.


am a passionate learner so I asked my supervisor to provide me with some study
references and recommendations. I also marked my presence during project
discussions as I wanted to remain aware of all the processes and problem of
this project. Group meeting was held
weekly but in the case of any problem, I scheduled the meetings more than once
in a week for resolving it quickly. Due to my effective management skills and
project schedule, I was able to complete the project within one month and using
least possible resources.


project required plotting various graphs and performing plenty calculations. I
used basic engineering formulas to assist my designing calculations like blade
area, disc area, disc loading, power loading, induced velocity, power required,
autorotative index, and figure of merit. I made use of engineering designing
standards, in this way I was able to justify my design and proved its


used the UNIGRAPHICS designing tool for carrying out the design procedures of
this project. I opted for this software as it had better, performance,
productivity, and flexibility than other designing tools. For the purpose of
analysis, I used ANSYS software to perform different calculations and store my
data safety. It saved and loaded my data effectively. I acquired the guidance
of my seniors to gain proficiency in these computerized tools and used them for
simplifying the analysis and design procedures of my project.


paid close attention to the safety procedures throughout this project. I made
sure not to leave any gaps in my design so I kept the sizing accurate. I dealt
with the blades carefully and advised my team members to do the same. We wore
protective gloves while working with the rotors blades to prevent any cuts or
bruises. After attaching the rotor system with the helicopter, we examined it
from a distance to ensure that nobody got hurt. The procedures that I adopted
were environment-friendly.


was involved in monitoring and control process in this project. After assigning
duties to each team member, I supervised their performances individually to
ensure that they were executing it correctly. I simulated my design in the
software and performed various tests to ensure it was error-free. I monitored
the working of the rotor system after its completion to look for any loophole.
I tested out the operation of the system in the presence of my supervisor so he
could share his thoughts with the team. The modifications and improvements that
he suggested were also considered.


hospitable nature helped me to bond with my team members. I coordinated and
interacted with them at all times. We shared our suggestions with each other
and respected everyone’s point of view. We often went to the college library to
study together and conducted informal group discussions. During the weekends,
we went over for hi-tea and discussed the project in a relaxed atmosphere. The
project enlarged my social circle and imparted confidence in me. After this
project, I was able to communicate better with the people and give impressive


kept the report writing standards of the college in mind while documenting the
processes of this project. I elaborated each step chapter-wise and included
project simulations, graphical representations, data tabulation, and software
results in the report. I maintained a seamless flow in the report which gained
great appreciation from the chairman of my department. I took care of
copyrights protection and demonstrated English language proficiency in my
report. In the end, I submitted the report to the project supervisor for review
and gave the final presentation of the project.

v  Summary

CE 1.20

The main rotor blade sizing that spanned a period of one month, resulted due to the efforts of me and my team. I was
able to understand the individual processes i.e. the preliminary design and
learned about new techniques and software. The helicopter lifted according to
the pressures and forces acting on the rotor blade. I would present my
heartiest gratitude my project guide and seniors for providing me with their
guidance and constant encouragement. I am grateful for such a supportive
project team who helped me in solving all the complexities of this project. I
am also thankful to my department’s faculty for providing me with their help
and cooperation to complete this project. Undoubtedly, this project opened new
doors of learning for me that will prove beneficial for me for the rest of my