Aswathy University Kottayam Adi Shankara Institute of Engineering

Aswathy Menon K S

of Computer Science and Engineering

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Gandhi University


Adi Shankara Institute of
Engineering and Technology, Kalady


Abstract – This paper focuses on the growth
of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) atowards Superintelligence, the
advances made in the field of artificial intelligence, the drawbacks and
difficulties faced during its evolution. The main focus of this paper is on
Cyborgs and whether they guide us through the age of artificial intelligence.  We also briefly discuss the future of AI and
also about what awaits the human race in the future.




Intelligence is a field that studies how to create computers and computer
software of intelligent behaviour.5 It is a man – made intelligence yet is of
real quality. The traditional goals of AI include reasoning, knowledge,
planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to
move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is the long term goal of AI.
That’s where the field of Artificial General Intelligence comes into play.


Artificial General
Intelligence (AGI) or strong AI is a type of AI, which defines the intelligence
of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human
being can. It is also referred to as the ability of a machine

                  Gripsy Paul

of Computer Science and Engineering

Gandhi University


Adi Shankara Institute of
Engineering and Technology, Kalady


to perform
“general intelligent action”.2 The term “strong AI” is also used to
refer to machines with consciousness. In addition to the traditional goals of
AI, other important capabilities like ability to sense and act, especially
ability to detect and respond to hazard. Apart from these, additional traits
like imagination and autonomy. Computers that exhibit such abilities does
exist, but are not up to the level of human intelligence.


defies all the limitations posed by AGI. It is defined as an intelligence that
surpasses all humans of utter intelligence.5 The definition of
superintelligence coined by University of Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom goes
as “an intellect that is much smarter than the best human brains in practically
every field, including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social
skills”. Some researchers believe that superintelligence will likely follow
shortly after the development of artificial general intelligence.3




journey of artificial intelligence begins as storytelling devices. Later only
the idea of building a machine capable of performing useful reasoning was
brought about. It all started with the study of formal reasoning by
philosophers and mathematicians, which led directly to Alan Turing’s theory of
computation. The first work that is now generally recognized as AI was
McCullouch and Pitts’ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial
neurons”. Such advancements in the field of AI led to creation of another
field AI research. But, it failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the
remaining tasks which slowed the progress in the field of AI. The next few
years where known as “AI winter”, a period when obtaining fund for AI projects
was difficult. AI research was later revived by the success of expert systems,
a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of
human experts.


By 21st
century, AI found its use in logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and
other areas. Later on, deep learning, access to large amounts of data and
faster computers enabled advances in machine learning and perception.




is a hypothetical machine that has the ability to apply intelligence to any
problem rather than a specific problem. It typically means “at least as smart
as a typical human”. In the mid 1950’s, modern AI research began. The
researchers where convinced that AGI would come into existence within few
decades. However, confidence in AI collapsed by 1980’s. In 1900’and later on,
applied AI found more success. Ideas where brought about to develop strong AI
by combining some of the programs that solved many of the sub – problems. But
these ideas also faced many disputes.


though the idea of AGI started off early, the term was coined by Mark Gubrud in
1997 in a discussion of the implications of fully automated military production
and operations. Most AI researchers devoted little to the field of AGI as they
claimed that intelligence is too complex to replicate. In the introduction to
his book, Goertzel says that estimates of the time needed before a truly
flexible AGI is built vary from 10 years to over a century, but the consensus
in the AGI research community seems to be that the timeline discussed by Ray
Kurzweil in ‘The Singularity is Near” (i.e. between 2015 and 2045) is


such as the Machine Intelligence Research Institute and OpenAI have been
founded to influence the development path of AGI. Finally, projects such as the
Human Brain Project have the goal of building a functioning simulation of the
human brain. A 2017 survey of AGI categorized forty-five known “active
R projects” that explicitly or implicitly (through published research)
research AGI, with the largest three being DeepMind, the Human Brain Project,
and OpenAI.

popular approach used to achieve AGI is whole brain emulation, where the
computer runs a simulation model so similar to the original such that it
behaves just like the original brain. There are some research projects that are
investigating brain simulation using more sophisticated neural models,
implemented on conventional computing architectures. In an early effort Igor
Aleksander argued that the principles for creating a conscious machine already
existed but that it would take forty years to train such a machine to
understand language.


                The term “strong AI” was coined
by philosopher John Searle. He distinguished between two types of intelligence

An artificial intelligence system can
think and have a mind.

An artificial intelligence
system can (only) act like it
thinks and has a mind.

                The former denotes
“strong AI” hypothesis and the latter “weak AI” hypothesis.


                After the launch of AI research
in 1956, the progress of AI has slowed down over time. A major reason for this
is the lack of memory and processing power of computers. Also the complexity of
human intelligence has slowed down the advancements in the field of AI. Even
though, computers were able to solve problems that where complex to humans,
they were not able to solve problems that were simple to humans. This further
slowed down the progress.


                Many AI researchers debate over
the idea whether machines should be created with emotions. Typical models of AI
were devoid of emotions and researchers say programming emotions into machines
allows them to have a mind of their own. David Gelernter writes, “No
computer will be creative unless it can simulate all the nuances of human




                The science fiction writer
Arthur Clarke famously wrote, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is
indistinguishable from magic.”7 Yet, humanity may be on the verge of
something much greater, a technology so revolutionary that it would be
indistinguishable not merely from magic, but from an omnipresent force, a deity
here on Earth. It’s known as artificial super-intelligence (“ASI”), and,
although it may be hard to imagine, many experts believe it could become a reality
within our lifetimes.


research into strong AI produced sufficiently intelligent software, it would be
able to reprogram and improve itself – a feature called “recursive
self-improvement”. It would then be even better at improving itself, and could
continue doing so in a rapidly increasing cycle, leading to superintelligence.
This scenario is known as an intelligence explosion. Such intelligence would
not have the limitations of human intellect, and may be able to invent or
discover almost anything.


philosopher Nick Bostrom, in his recent and celebrated book “Superintelligence”,
argues that advanced AI poses a potentially major existential risk to humanity,
and that advanced AI development should be heavily regulated and perhaps even
restricted to a small set of government-approved researchers. It has been
suggested that learning computers that rapidly become superintelligent may take
unforeseen actions or that robots would out-compete humanity (one technological
singularity scenario). Because of its exceptional scheduling and organizational
capability and the range of novel technologies it could develop, it is possible
that the first Earth superintelligence to emerge could rapidly become matchless
and unrivalled: conceivably it would be able to bring about almost any possible
outcome, and be able to foil virtually any attempt that threatened to prevent
it achieving its objectives. It could eliminate, wiping out if it chose, any
other challenging rival intellects; alternatively it might manipulate or
persuade them to change their behaviour towards its own interests, or it may merely
obstruct their attempts at interference. Physicist Stephen Hawking, Microsoft
founder Bill Gates and SpaceX founder Elon Musk have expressed concerns about
the possibility that AI could evolve to the point that humans could not control
it, with Hawking theorizing that this could “spell the end of the human




we have discussed so far, there comes a time when AI will surpass all human
beings. Survival of human race will become a race against time. The relevance
of human race will diminish by that time.


Artificial Intelligence advances, human race have to evolve in the same
pace  inorder to not lose its relevance
as well as saving oneself from the verge of extinction.


of the main advantages of a computer over humans is its speed in delivering
message which is a trillion bits per second. Humans are limited by the typing


Tesla and SpaceX CEO, Elon Musk discussed the need for a “merger of
biological intelligence and digital intelligence” during a talk held at
the World Government Summit in Dubai on February 13. “Some high-bandwidth
interface to the brain will be something that helps achieve a symbiosis between
human and machine intelligence, and maybe solves the control problem and the
usefulness problem,” Musk said of the need for humans to merge their
minds with computers. He introduced a concept to link the human brains to
computer interface known as “neural – lace” concept.8 He also expressed his
fear in “deep AI”, as there is a chance for the AI to surpass even the smartest
humans in the world. Also the fear of losing employment is an immediate threat
o the human race.


cyborg an organism that has both organic (“natural”) and cybernetic (“machine”)
parts. In other words, when people become cyborgs, they’re part human and part
machine. From Nike’s fuelband to Google Glass, the introduction of wearable
devices have increased the “cyborg” ability of a human. Cyborgs will continue
to increase and gain enhanced sensory and superhuman capabilities.

fusion of human with the latest technology doesn’t stop there.9 Already there
are people trying to embed new senses—and make no mistake of it, GPS is already
an addition to the human sensorium, albeit still in an external device—directly
into our minds and bodies. Neurotech—direct interfaces between machines and the
brain and nervous system—is another frontier. There has been great progress in
creating prosthetic limbs that provide sensory feedback and respond directly to
the mind. AI is not some kind of radical discontinuity. AI is not the machine from
the future that is hostile to human values and will put us all out of work. AI
is the next step in the spread and usefulness of knowledge, which is the true
source of the wealth of nations. We should not fear it. We should put it to
work, intentionally and thoughtfully, in ways that create more value for society
than they disrupt. It is already being used to enhance, not replace, human

“To truly realize the potential of
HI+AI,” he says, “we need to increase the capacity of people to take in,
process, and use information, by orders of magnitude.”, says Elon Musk, CEO of
SpaceX.  Thats where the cyborgs come
into play.




far we have seen how artificial intelligence has developed over the past
century. It still has a lot more to go. The future of AI awaits the human race.
Self – replicating machines, recursive self improvement, hive mind, robot
swarm, technological singularity, singularitarianism, human enhancement,
transhumanism, posthumanism, cyborgs, mind uploading etc. are just a few of
what awaits us. Even though, AI have simplified most of our problems, it still
prone threat to the human race. The rise of powerful artificial intelligence,
professor Stephen Hawking once warned, will be “either the best or the worst
thing ever to happen to humanity.”1










7Ben Goertzel Ph.D., Chairman, Novamente LLC, Superintelligence: Fears,
Promises and Potentials, Journal of Evolution and Technology , Vol. 24, Issue
2, November 2015, pgs 55-87