# ASSIGNMENT × 1000 = 0.0858 × 1000000 =

ASSIGNMENT

Question: 1. Calculate the TSS and VSS for your water
samples (show the calculation). (4 marks)

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GROUP NUMBER

TYPE OF SAMPLE

VOLUME
(ML)

EMPTY CRUCIBLE + FILTER MASS (G)

CRUCIBLE + DRIED RESIDUE (G)

CRUCIBLE + WEIGHT OF FILTER AFTER COMBUSTION (G)

CALCULATED VALUE OF TSS
(mg/L)

CALCULATED VALUE OF VSS(mg/L)

1.

RAW

15

19.9905

20.0673

20.0191

5120

3213

2.

PRIMARY

30

20.9219

21.0077

20.9226

2860

2836

TSS calculation for raw water:

Where:

A = weight of crucible + filter paper + dried residue in g = 20.0673
g

B = weight of crucible + filter paper in g = 19.9905 g

C = volume of
sample filtered in mL = 15 ml

TSS (mg / L) = 20.0673 – 19.9905 × 1000 × 1000
= 0.0768   × 1000000 = 0.00512
× 1000000 =

15
15

= 5120 mg / L

VSS calculation for raw water:

Where:

A = final weight
from TSS analysis = 20.0673 g

B = final weight
of filter after combustion = 20.0191 g

C = mL of sample filtered = 15 ml

VSS (mg / L) = 20.0673 – 20.0191 × 1000 × 1000
= 0.0482 × 1000000 = 0.003213
× 1000000 =

15
15

= 3213 mg/L

TSS calculation for primary water:

Where:

A = weight of crucible + filter paper + dried residue in g = 21.0077
g

B = weight of crucible + filter paper in g = 20.9219 g

C = volume of
sample filtered in mL = 30 ml

TSS (mg/ L) = 21.0077 – 20.9219 × 1000 × 1000
= 0.0858 × 1000000 = 0.00286 × 1000000 =

30
30

= 2860 mg / L

VSS calculation for primary water:

Where:

A = final weight
from TSS analysis = 20.9226
g

B = final weight
of filter after combustion = 20.9226 g

C = mL of sample
filtered = 30 ml

VSS (mg /L) = 21.0077
– 20.9226 × 1000 × 1000 = 0.0851   × 1000000 = 0.00283 × 1000000 =

30                                                 30

= 2836 mg/L

Question:2. Summarize the
results in a graph.  Include both TSS and
VSS results in the graph

Include an appropriate
figure title or figure description.  (4 marks)

Question: 3. Discuss the results.  Considering that the source of the wastewater
sample, do the

TSS and VSS values agree with what you expected?  Why or why not? (5 marks)

The value of
TSS should be high in raw water. According to my calculation, value of

TSS in raw water and primary
water are 5120 mg/L and 2860 mg/L. I am agree with

my result, after the
filtration, the weight of dust particles and pollutants in raw water

is high than primary because
primary water is pure than raw water and value of TSS

in primary water is low. The same reason for
VSS result in raw and primary water. The

values of VSS in raw (3213
mg/L) and primary (2836mg/L).

(REFERENCE: lab assignment 2)

Question: 4. List and briefly describe two different
lab practices that should be used to increase

the accuracy of the TSS/VSS method.

Answer:      1. It is necessary to dry sample for longer period of time, cooled
under a proper

conditions. After
that, weighed it quickly for achieving a constant weight.

Otherwise, it will
putt effect on the result.

2. Before taking
sample of waste water, always mix it. If do not completely mix, dust

and particles will settle down then, the accuracy of TSS/VSS will
decrease.

(REFERENCE: Lab assignment
2, https://fleming.desire2learn.com/d2l/le/content/78586/viewContent/905051/View?ou=78586,
19-01-2018)

Question: 5. Explain the difference between the terms:
TSS, TDS, and VSS (3 marks)

Answer: TSS = It is a
water quality parameter that can be trapped by a filter.

TDS = It measures the amount of minerals,
metals, organic material and salts that are

present in a certain
water volume.

VSS = It is a water quality
measure obtained from the loss on ignition of total suspended

Solids.

(REFERENCE: https://www.slideshare.net/DonaldMarek/4-labtsstdsvss,
Slide Share,

9/26/2013

Question: 6. Distinguish between turbidity and TSS
analysis.

the amount of cloudiness in the water.

It can be
caused by: Silt, sand and mud

Sacteria and other germs

Chemical precipitates.

TSS analysis = The method which
is used for the measurement of total suspended solids,

a water
is filtered, dried and weighted.

Turbidity

and Total
Suspended Solids, ND)

Question: 7. List and describe 3 different impacts
that TSS originating from wastewater effluent

could have in aquatic environments.

Answer: There are many impacts from wastewater on the environment of
aquatic life.

1.
In wastewater, large amount of
organic matter and nutrients. Increased level of nutrients can lead to decline
the amount of oxygen and which creates problem in breathing and can cause of
death. By increasing in the amount of organic matter which can alter energy relationships in
the stream, disrupting biotic community structure and function. Effluent discharge can also deposit sand
and grit into aquatic systems, affecting the physical functioning of fishes.

2.
Ammonium is present in the
wastewater which is very harmful. It causes many serious problems like toxic
buildup in internal tissues and blood and potentially death. Environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, can affect
ammonia toxicity to aquatic animals.

3.
In waste
water another chemical pollutant is present that is iron. The normal range of
iron is not toxic for fish life but it exceeds from normal it do not dissolve
in water and can harmful for internal organs and blood.
It will also putt negative effect on the human life.

(REFERENCE: https://flambeaumineexposed.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/cd-125-100.pdf
, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/documents/aquatic-life-ambient-water-quality-criteria-for-ammonia-freshwater-2013.pdf
, 2013, Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria for ammonia – freshwater )

Question:
8. You conduct a TSS on fairly clear water.
After 100 mL is filtered, there is very

little material on the
filter paper, which makes weighing the sample prone to

inaccuracies.  What changes could you make to the method to
increase the

accuracy of this particular
TSS analysis? (2 marks)

Answer:  To increase the accuracy of TSS analysis, if
adding more water in the given sample then

most of the dust particles
settle down on the filter paper and result will come out

accurate.

(REFERENCE:
lab assignment)