Article 1: The changes of social structure and migration in cities in Albania Matilda Likaj Lecturer, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Epoka University. Cemal Baltac? Assist Prof. Dr., Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Epoka University. 1) The main issues disscused in this paper are the political and social changes, urbanization and social problems that appeared in Albanian society after 1990’s. Also the effect that have appear to social values by the change of social structure and the formation of the new conscious in Albanian society.2) The above issue is important because urbanization takes an important place, not only by getting modern standards but also it gets a growth of population and changes in many structure of societies. Many times in social science like sociology concept of urbanization is called as a dynamic structure that gets physical and social changes. Changes that come from urbanization, affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc.After 1990s in Albania started major changes in the social, cultural, politic and economic structures. This process was affected from a new and modern civilization and also was called as transition. 3) There is a detailed and easy to understand literature review presented in this study. This issue first started with the Collapse of the Berlin’s wall, which gave courage to Albanian intellectuals and students to protest for the collapse of communism system and to get new political, social and cultural system. After 1990s in Albania started major changes in the social, cultural, politic and economic structures. This process was affected from a new and modern civilization and also was called as transition. A part of transition was migration and emigration waves. These kind of waves were causing form the collapse of communisms laws (In communism was forbidden to pass form a country, city, village to another one without having a strong reason).People needed something new in their life style and they tried to find it by changing the place where they lived. 4) The method used starts by explaining the begining of the protests, when and and why they started in the first place, and by who. Then it gives us a deffinition of “Urbanization”, what is it and what are it’s effects. Also it analyses Migration of People from Rural to Urban Places and The Changes of Values. 5) Urbanization in Albania have brought many changes in the Albanian society. Changes that come from urbanization, affect all structure of society like norms, values, traditions, way of life etc. Urbanization gets a renovation of a social structure by changing social structure.Most of values that were formed in the communism system started become old and unimportant value. .After the collapsed of communism Albanian cultures were so influenced from Italian and Western European cultures. These cultures influenced almost at the all institutions, relationships between people, lifestyles, mentality of people etc. One of the structures that changed from the transition in Albania was the family structure. In a family are founded more than two generation with different mentality. This difference was expressed by values that many time got conflict between generations. ARTICLE 2: Urbanization of Post-communist Albania: Economic, Social, and Environmental Challenges Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern EuropeDorina Pojani The University of Queensland1) The purpose of this article is to describe some of the critical urban and social transformations in Albania since the fall of communism in 1990 and their economic, social, and environmental consequences, and to respond to some of the negative views about the greatly increased urbanization. This article discusses the benefits as well as harms of urbanization in Albania and argues that, in balance, urbanization is a positive force.2) The above issue is important because in Albania, policymakers, urban planners, theorists, and the general public have understandably been very concerned with the speed and magnitude of urban growth in Albania, especially of Tirana, and typically perceive it as negative. Urban developments are commonly referred to in the press as “the urban massacre.”3) There is a extended and really detailed literature review in this article. The introduction presents the problem of the urbanization and gives some reasons why it happens. First, it was an expression of a long-standing desire to move to urban areas, which was repressed in the past by communist era controls on mobility. Second, in the post-communist years many villages and towns were depleted of professional services.Third, in many regions, people were forced to leave rural areas in order to survive. However it seems that this article argues that urbanization is a positive form because it analyses some positive factors that urbanization have had in out country.4) The article starts with some general information about the urbanization in its begginings. Then it reveals data about how the population have moved from rural to urban zone, followed by detailed analysis of the factors that have affect in urbanization, and then the effect that urbanization itself had in Albania.5) Albania’s rapid urbanization has been central to its post-communist transformation to a market economy and democratic government. Albania’s larger cities and its capital in particular have definite advantages over rural areas and small towns, which outweigh the disadvantages. Meanwhile, urbanization has contributed to a host of problems. These emerging problems are inherent to the very nature of urbanization. Poor governance and a negative attitude to newcomers and their impact on urban growth partially explain why urbanization has not been an exclusively positive development in Albania. Other reasons include poverty and the impact of urbanization on traditional social structures. Solutions are not simple; nor are there readily available models from other countries that Albanian cities could adopt. Article 3: Migration as a Challenge for Albanian Post Communist Society Ph.D Cand. Matilda Likaj Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Bedër University, Tirana, Albania e-mail: [email protected] 1) The objectives of this articles are going to be focus on analyze of internal and international Albanian migration during post communist period till nowadays. During analyze of this phenomena is going to take into consideration social changes, social capital and its effect on the Albanian society challenges. . Also this article discusses Albanian migration phenomena and analyzes its effects of social changes and social capital in society. 2) This issue is important because the process of migration, both internal and international one, has increasingly been seen as involving economic, political and demographic changes, as well as processes of urbanization and modernization. Migration has profound social, cultural and economic consequences for individuals, families, communities, society, regions and the country as a whole. The effect of migration is reflected in the population decreasing and the massive urbanization of some areas and de-urbanization of others, increased differentiations among social and economical stratifications that reflect to the integration of migrants, dynamic changes in the gender and the age or demography of the population.3) There is a detailed literature review on this article. Two are the main research questions explained in this article: 1) Migration Phenomena and its Challenges in Home Society, saying that migration is a very complex phenomena in the perspective of socio-cultural and economic life. Human migration is the movement of people from one country to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi permanent residence, usually across a political boundary. 2) Albanian Migration: Its Effects on Social Changes and Social Capital in Society, where it explains that migration, whether rural to urban or international, has emerged as the most common livelihood coping strategy in Albania, and has served as an important escape valve for unemployment and other economic difficulties brought on by the transition to a market economy4) The method used strats with giving a short historical information about the comunism in Ballkan and how Albania was influenced by it. Followed by information related to the process of migration: what causes migration, and what migration itself causes, what are its effects? Then it analysis to main research questions such as 1) Migration Phenomenia and 2) Albanian Migration. They both cause changes and affect the society of one country but not only. 5) Migration (in and out of Albania) involves a series of events that can be challenge for society. Sometimes, the process involves uprooting, being separated from traditional values, being placed in new social and cultural different situations of society. Also these changes may be appearing in the huge social changes and the fade of social capital of social structure. Migration phenomena impact s also on the reorganization of social structure. The flow of young people as a work force outside Albania leads to the lack of population dynamism and anomies in the socio-cultural structure of Albania. ARTICLE 4 : Albanian migration during the post communist transition and the European integration in global era. An intercultural reflection Dott. Agim Leka, PhD Candidate University “A Xhuvani”, Elbasan, Albania Member of Parliament , Albania 1) Miiigration is a human experience, which has arisen and developed in relation to the human society itself. In our era, immigration is associated with the integration and the globalization. Immigration is a modern intercommunications between cultures in a world increasingly with more multicultural, or in a world with a hybrid culture. Therefore migration is the most highlighted issue in this article since it affects us in many different ways. 2) The above issue is important because the migration is a part of existence and the history of Albanian. The migration, has been started at least in the xi century. In xiv-xv century the Albanian emigration had assumed as an exodus. The biggest wave of migration of Albanian people happened after death of the Albanian national hero Gjergj Kastrioti (Scanderbeg) (1468-1744). After the creation of the independent Albanian modern state (28 November 1912) the migration flows of Albanians continued. 3) The literature review presented in this study is too detailed. It gives us many information and also data and tables where there are specific information about what causes emigration and migration flows across the world. It also has many quotations from different individs. Besides that, this article analysis migration adn emigration from its roots, when it first started in 1468-1744, after the death of Skanderbeg.4) The method used starts with providing information about emigration as a subject study of Transitology, followed by a short history of Albanian emigration, which explains the times when migration first started. It also gives us data on what causes emigration. The most disscused phenomens are: The Albanian emigrants durin the trasition times, The integration of Albanian emigrants, and Integration as a cultural intercommunication.ARTICLE 5 : Population Association of America annual meeting 2016, Washington D.C. Session 14: New Directions in Migration Research Internal and international migrations across the urban hierarchy in Albania Mathias Lerch Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 18057 Rostock – Germany [email protected] 1) This article aims to analyse internal and international movements across the urban hierarchy and the urban-rural continuum in post-communist Albania, in order to increase understanding of population mobility. Results reveal a large-scale onset of rural-to-urban migration, despite the crisis in the 1990s. Internal migrants focused towards peripheral cities and the capital, bypassing secondary centers. 2) This issues is important because post-Communist Albania experienced a rapid catch up in urbanization and large-scale emigration from both rural and urban areas (Azzari and Carletto 2009; Lerch 2014). We adopt a longitudinal and geographical sending-country perspective to test the hypothesis of mobility transition (Zelinsky 1971). This model predicts an increase and subsequent decrease in rural-to-urban and international movements (hereafter also referred to as out-/in-migration and e- /immigration, respectively) during the modernization process. 3) Almost the entire literature review in this article is associated with data and quotations. This article gives us detailed information about migration and emigration in post – comunist Albania.4) The method used starts with providing general information about the issues caused by emigration and migration. Followed by information about The Albanian context, The mobility transition and its mediating factorys, Data and Methods etc.All these analysis give us a better idea for migration and emigration and their effects in Albanian society but not only. 5) In order to contribute to the understanding of the process of Albania’s urbanization, we investigated the diffusion of both types of migrations across the urban hierarchy and the sexes, using retrospective survey data. The country is an interesting case to test the hypothesis of mobility transition because of its sharp increase in population mobility during the post-communist crisis, as well as its continuous urbanization and emigration in the subsequent period of economic and political consolidation.