Anionic surfactants are sets of xenobiotic compounds which contain
either sulfonated or ester sulfate groups (Petersson et al.,2000,
which are trusted ingredients in a number of professional products such as
detergents , cosmetic makeup products, textile industry, agriculture and biotechnology (Di Corcia,1998 Sales, etal., 1999, Hosseini, et al.,2007).
For their large intake worldwide, anionic surfactants contain the
potential for huge disposal directly into aquatic and terrestrial surroundings
(Edser.,2006). These materials can respond on natural wastewater treatment
techniques and cause problems in sewage aeration and treatment facilities because
of the high foaming, lower oxygenation potentials and making loss of life of
waterborne microorganisms (Eichhorn,et al., 2002). Large concentrations of surfactants cause skin soreness. The
threshold value that can impair aquatic life is 3-12 mg/L.
Among the most essential anionic surfactants
(by generation volume) are the the linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alcohol ethoxy sulfates (AES),
and alkyl sulfates (AS) (Mathew et al., 2016).
Anionic surfactants can attach to bioactive
macromolecules, for example, peptides, proteins, and DNA (Marques et al.,2000). Official to proteins and peptides
may change the collapsing of the polypeptide chain and the surface charge of a
particle. This may change biological function (Cserhati
et al., 2012)
Anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been use
for about 45years (Lauer, et al., 1996). SDS, in
particular, is an essential element of shampoos and foaming agent for
toothpaste. Primary criterion for the environmental behavior of surfactants is
their biodegradability (Cain,et al., 1981).
Biodegradation is most often performed by soil or aquatic bacteria and leads to
technology of water and carbon dioxide gas (Schleheck,et
SDS has adverse
effects on the environment such as
making foam on the water surface and avoid the work of oxygen withdrawal
of water, make the water smelly and taste, leaving toxic effects on organisms
such as humans, water and plants, spread of pathogenic bacteria and help
environmental conditions to spread diseases, occurrence of the phenomenon of Eutrophication
in terms of consumption of phosphate, and the influence of detergents that rupture membrane of microorganisms
leading to the elimination of enzymes (Tibor et al.,2002). In recent
years, the use of bioremediation for the elimination of ionic detergents has
been an effective alternative to other different methods, due to its ease and
low cost, and the absence of damage to the environment and human (Iwamoto &Nasu (2001).
So, the target of the present examination was
to isolate, screening, identification of SDS degrading bacteria from waste water,
to obtain the optimum condition for biodegradation, and to decide the degree of