An includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such

An analysis of how the political and/or historical experiences and viewpoints of different media outlets impacts on their reporting.In my paper I will critique how the political and historical experiences and viewpoints of different media outlets impacts on their reporting. I will explain what exactly I mean when I say Media and what media outlets I will be focusing on. By Media I mean communication channels through which news, entertainment and education are broadcast to a population, it includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines. However, I will focus on one media outlet as analysing all these will be beyond the scope of this essay. To analyse the impact on reporting I will focus on how different media outlets report on what would be considered to be a very non pollical, non-controversial and very normal event the start of a bike race. I will analyse how their history, political background and historical experiences have impacted on their reporting.In my paper I will be focusing on two written media newspapers and an online newspaper as my media outlets. The newspapers and articles I will be critiquing are from the Jerusalem Post, The Guardian and the online newspaper The Middle Eastern Monitor. I will be analysing how each respective media outlet views and reports on the beginning of the Giro d’Italia.The Giro Italia is a road cycling event that since 1909 (excluding WWI and WWII) takes place annually, it is considered to be the second most important cycling stage race in road cycling. The race usually lasts a period of three weeks and is held in May each year. “The race takes an alternating route through Italy and the near abroad, alternating its route annually through Italy and the near abroad.  The Giro has had some famous starts in countries including Northern Ireland, the Netherlands and Denmark “(1). The race has started Friday the 4th of May 2018 will be a historic day for not only the Giro Italia but for the cycling world as a whole, “For the first time ever, a Grand Tour will start outside of Europe. It’s the 13th time that Giro Italia starts outside of Italy. Israel will host the first three stages of next year’s Corsa Rosa, beginning with an Individual Time Trial in Jerusalem”. (http://www.giroditalia.it/eng/big-start-2018/ 29/10/2017 17.02) The race will start in Jerusalem, one of the largest cities in Israel. So, what is it that makes this bike race, which has been around for so many years and has not previously experienced any controversy regards to the race starting outside of Italy, so controversial in 2018? In order to understand the controversy surrounding the 2018 Giro Italia, and to appreciate the reasons for the different reporting of its start in Israel, it is important to have an understanding of the historical and political background of the Israeli Palestinian conflict and the status of Jerusalem in particular. The Israeli -Palestinian conflict is complex and has a long history.  In 1948, following World War 2 and the holocaust, the state of Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people. The modern political movement for the creation of Israel had begun in the 19th century and this was known as Zionism. In 1897 in Basel, Switzerland, a political body called the Zionist Organisation(ZO) was formed and its leader was Theodor Herzl. The ZO campaigned for the creation of a Jewish homeland, to be called Israel, and for it to be situated on lands in which the Jewish people had lived in biblical times. The ZO encouraged Jewish immigration to this area and began a worldwide campaign to gain political and economic support for the attainment of their goal of the creation of a Jewish state.   At the time of the establishment of the ZO the lands in which they planned to establish the state of Israel were part of the Ottoman Empire. However, as a consequence of defeat in World War 1, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned and the territory, (now known as Israel, Gaza and the West Bank,) came under the control of Great Britain and was called Palestine. An immediate difficulty arising out of the British taking control of Palestine was the fact that in 1917 the British Government had issued the Balfour declaration. This document stated,” His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object,”(REFERENCE THIS) At the time of the Balfour Declaration, the notion of the creation of a Jewish homeland within Palestine was rejected by the majority population of the area. This population was Arab and chiefly Muslim. Whilst under British rule many local Arab political leaders argued for the creation of a Palestinian state. Such a state was to be aimed at representing the existing population and was strongly opposed to increasing levels of Jewish immigration and the idea of the creation of a Jewish homeland.  Throughout the period of the British mandate (April 1920-May 1948) (2) conflict, often violent, occurred between the expanding Jewish population and the existing Arab population. This conflict came to a head in 1948 when the area covered by the British Mandate of Palestine was partitioned into a Jewish state known as Israel and an Arab state.  This partition of the area known as Palestine was rejected by Arab political leaders and resulted in the Arab- Israeli war of 1948 and was a root cause of the subsequent wars of 1967 and 1973. In addition, since 1948 there have been ongoing acts of peaceful and violent resistance to the state of Israel from within the borders controlled by the Israeli government.  Jerusalem, prior to partition, had a long history of co-existence with Jews, Muslims and Christians living daily life side by side in a city with significant importance to each religious group. Under the UN proposals for the creation of two states in Palestine, Jerusalem was declared an International Neutral Zone. The UN plan was accepted by the Israelis and rejected by the Palestinians, The Palestinian population, under the leadership of the Arab League, rejected any idea of a partition of Palestine and argued that the population of Palestine should determine its own future and only one state should exist. At midnight on 14 May 1948, the British Mandate expired and the State of Israel was declared.In the 1948 Arab Israeli war the Arab League forces attempted to defeat the newly created state of Israel and establish a single unified state of Palestine. However, the Israeli armed forces largely succeeded in defeating the Arab League armies and following peace negations a cease fire was agreed. This resulted in the newly created Israeli state being established in lands largely contained in the UN plan. The exception to this was Jerusalem, where the Jordanian army, (part of the Arab League forces), had managed to capture and secure East Jerusalem and the old city. In the peace negotiations, control of Jerusalem was divided between Israel in the west and Jordan in the east.During the Arab Israeli war of 1967, known as the six-day war, Israel defeated the Jordanian forces and occupied East Jerusalem. In 1980 Israel officially annexed East Jerusalem and declared Jerusalem as its complete and united capital of the state of Israel. (7) “This action was condemned by the United Nations Security Council under Resolution 478”. (Resolution 478 1980 20 August)Today the status of Jerusalem is contested with Israel declaring a unified Jerusalem as its capital and the Palestinians declaring Jerusalem or Al-Quds, as it is called in Arabic, to be the capital of Palestine.I will now examine how this history, and the people’s interpretation and experiences of it, have impacted on the reporting of the opening stages of the Giro Italia. As mentioned previously, I will be using three different media outlets to demonstrate my argument and I have chosen one article from each media outlet. Two of the media outlets are traditional printed newspapers, the Guardian and the Jerusalem Post. Whilst the third is an online newspaper, the Middle Eastern Monitor.The Middle Eastern Monitor (MEMO) is an online newspaper outlet that was founded on July 1st 2009 and is relatively new in comparison to the other newspapers I will be focusing on. Its parent company is Arabia Inform, which is an Egyptian based media company. Its director is Dr. Daud Abdullah who was Deputy Secretary General of the Muslim Council of Britain from 2006-2010 and he has published books and articles on Islam and Palestine.  It is an online newspaper based in London which is published in both English and Spanish. According to its website it is a non-profit press organisation that aims to show the use or misuse of information in the central conflict in the Middle East. It states that its main focus is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Their website quotes “We aim to publish carefully reasoned commentaries rooted in factual evidence. We are also an essential point of reference for journalists, researchers, human rights organisations and NGOs. Here at MEMO, we recognise that official policy is often informed and defined by the nature of media coverage. As such, we regularly interface with politicians, editors, lobby groups and various other stakeholders to facilitate a better understanding and appreciation of the Palestine issue. (https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/about/) (06/11/2017 19.03). The middle eastern monitor attempts to gather news through their network of partner organisations and correspondents on the ground. (3) “The second outlet I will focus on is the Jerusalem post (JP). The JP is a traditional printed Israeli based newspaper which is published daily in both French and English. It was founded in 1932 by an American journalist Gerschon Agron and was first published under the name the Palestinian Post. Greschon Agron had previously worked as a journalist with various newspapers, including the Guardian. In addition, he was on various occasions an envoy for the ZO, from 1949-51 he led the official Israeli government information service and from 1955-59 he was Mayor of West Jerusalem. In 1950, following the creation of the state of Israel, the newspaper was renamed the Jerusalem Post. The JP is well known outside of Israel and once a week an international edition is published in Germany. Within Israel it is considered to be a conservative liberal newspaper not in favour of one political party. 4 The Jerusalem post aims to show that its articles have different opinions and attempts to show opinions of different political directions. It is currently owned by Mirkaei Tikshoret, which is a Tel Aviv, Israel based media company. The last media outlet I will focus on is the Guardian, The Guardian is a traditional print based daily British newspaper, which was founded on the 5th of May 1821 by John Edward Taylor and until 1959 it was known as the Manchester Guardian. The Guardian newspaper along with its sister newspapers, are owned by the Scott Trust. The Scott trust was founded in 1936 at a time when the newspaper was experiencing potential financial difficulties. The intention of the Trust was, “to secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference”(5) (Sunday 26 July 2015 13.55 BST the guardian newspaper The Scott Trust values and history) https://www.theguardian.com/the-scott-trust/2015/jul/26/the-scott-trustThe constitution of the Scott Trust states that any profits made from the newspapers must be reinvested into journalism and maintaining their editorial independence, rather than to benefit any shareholders.  I will now begin to critique the articles themselves. I will analyse how the three media outlets I have chosen deal differently with two key questions. The first question is whether the Giro d’Italia should be taking place in Israel. The second is whether it is acceptable that some of the race will take place in Jerusalem.In relation to the issue of whether the Giro d’Italia should be held in Israel the Middle Eastern Monitor makes its position very clear by focusing on reasons why the race should not be held in Israel. However, at no point in the article does the MEMO give its own editorial opinions, but rather it uses the arguments made by others to make its points. It should also be noted that at no point in the article is an alternative view given as to why the race should take place within Israel.In its opening paragraph the MEMO highlights the fact that famous international human rights activists, international politicians and over 120 human rights organisations, sport based groups and faith based organisations, from around the world, are campaigning to have the Giro Italia move its 2018 big race start from Israel. It goes on to outline that these individuals and organisations see Israeli violations of international law and human rights as ongoing issues that make Israel an unsuitable venue for the Big Start. In the course of the article the words discrimination, Palestinian human rights and legality/illegality are mentioned on 12 separate occasions. On the second point of Jerusalem we see the Middle Eastern Monitor says that official Giro Italia race materials are claiming “occupied East Jerusalem as it if were part of Israel” (12). The wording of this article is showing us that the Middle Eastern Monitor are making clear and stating that in their opinion the city of East Jerusalem is under occupation.The arguments are linked closely to its history and viewpoint of the Israeli/Palestinian relationship, which views the Palestinians as victims of Israeli rule and events dating back to the foundation of the Zionism and the ZO. Furthermore, it views the City of Jerusalem as a future Palestinian capital and points to the fact that the international community, through the United Nations (UN),refuses to accept that a united Jerusalem is the capital city of the state of Israel.In the Jerusalem Post article, we see an opposite view point. The newspaper is clearly in support of the state of Israel and sees the Giro d’Italia coming to Israel as a very positive thing. An important point to note is that the structures of the JP and the MEMO articles are remarkably similar. Firstly, as in the MEMO article, the JP does not give its own editorial opinion on the matter rather, it uses the quotes of others to make its position clear. Secondly, the JP article only gives one perspective on the issues raised and gives no acknowledgement of an alternative viewpoint. This is precisely what occurred in the MEMO article. Thirdly, the JP uses international organisations and individuals to support its viewpoint, in this instance famous sports personalities and Italian government ministers. In the MEMO article it was international human rights activists, EU Members of Parliament and human rights organisations to support its view. Fourthly, the language used in the article is very supportive of the viewpoint being given. The article uses words such as, “celebration”, thrilling experience”, “outdoor party”, beautiful”, “prestigious sporting events” to highlight how positive the event should be viewed. This is in direct contrast with the MEMO article where the language used,” Palestinian human rights”, illegal settlements”, “discrimination”, “military occupation” etc, makes the case against the Big Start.  Finally on the topic of Jerusalem we see that there is a quote from the Israeli mayor of Jerusalem Nir Barkat” Jerusalem, the capital of the state of Israel, is open to all”  it does not stipulate the city to east and west but rather referring to the city as one, as a whole and united. We see how the Middle Eastern Monitor and the Jerusalem Post mention very contrasting viewpoints on the status of Jerusalem.The overall arguments put forward in JP article are indeed closely linked to its own history and its analysis of Israeli/Palestinian relations. In the MEMO article this viewpoint is not directly expressed, but can be inferred from the language, sources used and the founding principles of the MEMO. However, in the JP article the link is made very clear, especially in its use of quotes from Big start organiser, Sylvan Adams.  He is quoting as saying, “This is a project about Zionism……. This historic ‘Big Start’ of the 101st edition of the Giro is about showcasing our country to 100s of millions of TV and live spectators: our beautiful outdoor scenery, sharing our history, our culture, and most of all our people, in this diverse, free, pluralistic and fiercely democratic society,” said Adams. (8).Furthermore, it fully supports the claim that a united Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and does not accept that the UN has a right to determine the sovereignty of Jerusalem.The Guardians stance on whether the race should take place in Israel takes on a different viewpoint. The article gives a more opiniated and arguably more balanced view than the JPost and MEMO. On the one hand it uses words such “occupied Palestinian territories” and “calls for a boycott”, whilst on the other it mentions “project its pride”, “warm people” and “charming country”.Unlike the MEMO and JPost., the Guardian article acknowledges that different opinions exist as to whether the Giro d’Italia should be staged in Israel. It too uses quotes to demonstrate the viewpoints of the different sides of the argument. For example it quotes Sylvan Adams, a wealthy businessman who is the driving force behind cycling in Israel, ” Normal Israel’ …. the regular daily life which somehow is not an interesting enough story to be told to the rest of the world. All they want to do is talk about conflict and terrorism” The Guardianalso quote Sharaf Qutaifan, Qutaifan, of the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel, “Starting the Giro in Israel to all intents rewards Israel for its decades-long human rights abuses against the Palestinian people, including athletes,” Although the article at no point says it agrees with one side or the other, it can be argued that the article is leaning towards a stance in support of the Palestinians. This can be seen in the language used in its final two paragraphs. Within the article it makes the point that the Israeli government, and bodies in support of it, wish the event to be seen as a purely sporting one taking place in a normal, pluralistic, multicultural, modern country. However, the Guardian clearly questions whether this view is a realistic one. It questions the validity of claiming the Big Start is non-political by pointing out one glaring fact, namely that at the launch event in Jerusalem, ” the absence of Palestinian faces in the room laid the politics of this event bare. No amount of pomp, pink and “Normal Israel” can hide it.”.On the second point regarding the status of Jerusalem the Guardian states that “route planners were careful to take the race well within internationally recognised borders, steering clear of the West Bank, Gaza and Jerusalem’s old city” (13). On this issue the language used by the Guardian is quite neutral. It is not emotive and, unlike the Middle Eastern Monitor, it does not use words such as “occupied”. However, it also does not portray Jerusalem as a “free city open to all” as in the Jerusalem post. The guardian takes on a neutral tone and simply states a fact, as outlined by the UN resolution   xxxx  kkkk It takes this view as it accepts the legitimacy of the UN in resolving international disputes. The Guardians gives us an article based on its own history. It gives us an article based on facts, and an insight into how both sides view the situation and it also has a willingness to put across its own opinion. The Guardian is able to do this as it is a newspaper that, under the ownership of the Scott Trust, is committed to editorial freedom, liberal values and balanced journalism. Belonging to a trust makes it is less able to be influenced by the viewpoint of an owner, be that an individual or organisation. This is not the case for the privately-owned JP or MEMO. One final point to note regarding the Guardian is that it is not directly involved in the Israeli Palestinian relationship. For the Guardian the issue of where the Giro d’Italia begins is simply one of many news stories from around the world and it has no direct interest in its outcome. This distance from events makes the presentation of a balanced article far less problematic Importance of history, to understand where newspaper is coming from need to understand history   viewpoint involvement, if you want to understand and recognise bias in the media you need to evaluate critique the media outlets they are coming from as background depends on historical values.To conclude, I have found that to critique the media or analyse it fairly, it is essential to first have a knowledge of the history and or political viewpoint of a newspaper or the media outlet in question. One must understand where exactly the newspaper is coming from, what the historical background of the media outlet is, what involvement does the chosen media outlet have with the situation. I have found that if you want to be able to understand and recognise bias in the media you need to evaluate and critique the media outlets, the information you are being provided with and the political orientation of the media outlet, as the background of the news outlet often depends on its historical values. In my paper I have aimed to show that depending on ones views and upbringing they will report differently on the same event.1. http://www.giroditalia.it/eng/ (    2. (http://www.giroditalia.it/eng/big-start-2018/ 29/10/2017 17.02)3. ZIONIST REFERNCE FIND ONE4. (Yale law school, the Avalon project, documents in law, history and diplomacy, Balfour declaration November 2nd, 1917)5. Palestine Through History: A Chronology (I) https://web.archive.org/web/20110617020548/http://www.palestinechronicle.com/view_article_details.php?id=14037 17:06 08/05/20086. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle east/4969714.stm BBC news “The press in Israel; Published Monday, 8 May 2006 13:587. https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/about/ (06/11/2017 19.03).8. REFERENCE ARGON SCOTT TRUST9. JERUSALEM POST REFERNCE10. https://www.theguardian.com/the-scott-trust/2015/jul/26/the-scott-trust.”(Sunday 26 July 2015 13.55 The Guardian Newspaper: The Scott trust values and history)11. https://www.theguardian.com/gnm-archive/2002/June/06/1 (Thursday 6 June 2002 00.01 BST The Guardian: The history of the Guardian12. Jerusalem Post, JERUSALEM TO HOST WORLD-FAMOUS GIRO D’ITALIA 2018 ‘BIG START’ BY JERUSALEM POST SPORTS STAFF   SEPTEMBER 18, 2017 15:49  13. Basic laws of Israel: Jerusalem Capital of Israel (1980) published by the Knesset14. The middle eastern monitor, Human rights groups urge Giro d’Italia to move race from Israel published November 23, 2017 at 1:05 pm | Published in: Europe & Russia, Israel, Italy, Middle East, News, Palestine15. The guardian 16. MEMO17. The Guardian