An factors that may have uneven representation, and

improved SPA evaluation model of lake eutrophication considers both single and
multiple criteria. It can be seen from Table 4 that evaluation results of the
improved SPA are coherent to the ISPA of Reference 10.  Given the fact that both the difference among
water quality levels and the proportion of the pollutant over standard are
taken into consideration
shows that ISPA (TFN) is more feasible and informative,
compared to traditional methods the proposed method is easier to interpret,
understand and provides a strong scientific basis for decision making in
Sustainable management of lakes.


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improved set pair analysis based on triangular fuzzy numbers enriches the
traditional set pair analysis method, which is relatively simple and accurate,
and has a wide application in the evaluation of lake eutrophication. The traditional evaluation method can
only get a rough assessment of the evaluation grade, and can’t further
distinguish between the same grades. The set pair analysis based on triangular
fuzzy number cannot only give the specific evaluation grade,
but also obtain a confidence interval. 

improved set pair analysis based on triangular fuzzy intervals the confidence interval
results are different when the confidence level a takes different values
between 0 and 1. The results are not a confidence interval but a precise value
while a=1.

super-standard multiple weight method calculates the weight coefficient by the
standard value of quality level of monitor, the results can reflect the degree
of contribution to subordinate grade of the monitor data of water environment
factors accurately. It is closer to the actual result of the weight than the
traditional method. This method takes into account the portions of water
environment factors that may have uneven representation, and account for them
by making the final assessment result reflect a more balanced and equal
interpretation of the monitor data accurately.