Agricultural weather, climate, landraces or primitive cultivars

Agricultural
biodiversity is defined as the variability and variety of plants, animals and
microorganisms that are used in agriculture and food. To specify it,
agricultural biodiversity can be expanded and categorized it into ecological
diversity, genetic diversity and organismal diversity. Agricultural is not only
a subset of biodiversity, somehow it embraces units and habitats that are
usually not accepted or recognized by some biologists as a part of biological
diversity. Agricultural biodiversity is the results of the interactions between
humans and natural ecosystem and brings beneficial to human health and
nutrition and able to provide humans with goods and services. It includes
species that are used directly and indirectly in food and agriculture and species
that are not included in the farming system. Diets, food intake, nutrition, and
ingredients for food preparation, cooking processing and storage are also one
of the elements of agricultural biodiversity. Besides, agricultural
biodiversity also includes physical, social, cultural, ethical, spiritual elements
and elements that benefits and harms the crops, food production, and ecosystem.
For instance, pollination is one of the elements that can bring beneficial not only
to food production but ecosystem. Likewise, pests and diseases are few of the elements
of agricultural biodiversity that affect crops adversely.

The number of
plant species and animal species that were successfully domesticated has been
decreased across the centuries due to the simplification of agriculture also
known as agricultural revolution. The ease of cultivation, the nutrition that
the species able to produce and the species that are able to be grown in a particular
habitat are the reasons of the simplification of agriculture. Over the
centuries, natural selection and artificial selection have developed a complex
diversity of local varieties or landraces. Due to the difference of external
conditions in such soil type, weather, climate, landraces or primitive
cultivars have their own adaptation, and characteristics such as nutritional value,
use and date of maturity.

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The
simplification of agriculture has caused some controversies. Researchers suggested
that it reduces human’s dietary diversity due to intensification of agriculture.
It brings adverse effect on human health due to human only rely on tiny number
of crop species for instance the staples, which are mainly barley, wheat rice,
millet, etc. and might cause malnutrition and has higher chance of getting
infection by diseases. However, some researchers suggested that by growing such
crops, others can concentrate on finding other nutrients, and so they can have
balance nutrition. In short, it cannot be denied that the intensification of
agriculture has sustained human population growth.

Simplification of agriculture is mainly caused by modern intensive agriculture,
while others are small-scale agriculture and other various forms of traditional
agriculture, home gardens. However, the substitution of landraces by more
advanced cultivars has caused genetic erosion of the crop species, loss of
landraces.

Humans in global depend only 7,000 out of 400,000 species of plants as
their staples in order to maintain adequate nutrition. They are normally cultivation
crops, underutilized or orphan crops, wild-gathered plant species, crop wild
relatives. Wild-gathered plant species are not only used as food, they are also
used as fibres, fuel, ornament and medicines. They are still popular in tropics,
developing countries and the Mediterranean region especially for rural people,
as they provide rural poor with most of their daily requirement of essential
vitamins and minerals. As wild-gathered species play important role to humans nowadays
for instance increase income, nutritional benefits, some domestication
programmes are being  developed to bring
wild species into cultivation.

The term ‘Underutilized
species’ is defined as those species that can improve people’s livelihoods,
food security, domestication but due to lack of competitiveness with
domesticated crops, they are not fully utilized. However, these species are
receiving more recognition which more and more report and meeting has mentioned
the importance of underutilized species. Next, crop wild relatives are an
essential source of genetic material for getting better adapted crops even though
it is not a major role in human nutrition. Hence, it is also now widely
recognized that crop wild relatives will play a role in future food security
when facing global change.

Animal diversity
for instance dairy products, eggs, meat, etc. also plays important role in
human nutrition and dietary diversity. It mainly contains proteins, fat, some
vitamins and nutrition that might not have in the plants. It might not a major
part of some people’s diet due to dietary restriction, financial restriction, supply
restriction. Wild meat can be defined as non-domesticated mammals, birds,
reptiles and amphibians hunted for food. However, due to excessive hunting of
some wild animals, it is threatening the livelihoods of some forest
communities. . The demand for animal source foods has been increasing in recent
years. Hence, industrial livestock production is needed to supplement the wild
meat. However, it is reported that the practice of cultivation is not sustainable
due the large usage of land surface. Next, fish and crustaceans is a major
source for coastal, lacustrine and riverine communities. Fish play important role
in developing countries especially in rural area, to get sufficient nutrition. Now,
nearly 50 percent of fish eaten are cultivated, not wild capture.