After Islam was said to have ended in

After the battle, the Mongols retreated and
returned to Syria and Palestine. The effect the Mongols left on countries they
conquered was tragic. Many areas never fully recovered economically and
politically but because Egypt defeated the Mongols and evaded their rule, they never
suffered this fate and the Mongols never tried to invade Egypt again. Apart
from the regular recovery of war, the Mongols had no drastic or lasting effect
on Egypt.

 

The Mongols did, however, manage to continue to
change the world when they played a big part in setting about the decline of
the Islamic Golden Age. The Islamic Golden Age took place under the Abassid
Caliphate or Empire and was the period between the 8th and 13th
centuries CE where science, culture, medicine and the economy of the
historically Muslim world thrived. Many scientific and literary discoveries and
breakthroughs were made during this era and it is said that during this time,
Timbuktu, Damascus, Cordoba, Cairo and Baghdad’s libraries had more literature
and books than the entire Greek world.

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The Golden age of Islam was said to have ended
in the 13th century following the invasion of the Mongols in Baghdad
and their destruction of the House of Wisdom – where many of the works and data
on the discoveries were kept. This together with the Mongols killing or deporting
many scientists and scholars and razing libraries containing irreplaceable
works and information, caused a major setback and decline in the Arab world.
They destroyed the cultural, technological and scientific legacy the Muslims
had been building and safe-guarding for 500 years.

 

Although the Mongols played a big part in the
decline, the mismanagement of territories by the early Caliphs or rulers from
the 10th century onwards also contributed to the decline as their somewhat
poor rule brought about many political and economical issues that crippled many
Middle-Eastern states, causing some of them to fall taking their knowledge along
with them.

Given all this, some scholars have stated that
there was continued creativity and science through to the 15th and
16th centuries. However, since Iraq did take the brunt of the attack
in Baghdad, science there did decline more significantly but it continued to
thrive in Syria, Egypt and Persia. However, there is still a consensus that
scientific activity did fade after the 16th century.