Definition of Advertising– This is any paid form of promotion presentations, intended to attract buyers in purchasing particular goods or services, and there after strive in retaining the customer. The above is achieved through a process in which companies create value for customers and “stimulate a strong customer relationship in order to capture value from customers in return” (Cloke n. p.). The main aim of advertizing is to add value to a particular product and attract customers. According to Terence A. Shimp, “effective advertizing causes brands to be viewed as more elegant, more stylish, more prestigious of higher quality, and so on” (190).
History of cigarettes commercials in USA. – The earliest known advertisement of cigarettes in the United States of America is recorded to be that of snuff and products of tobacco, featured in 1789 in New York daily paper. During this era the art of commercials in respect to that of tobacco was a complete new concept. Cigarette commercials were perceived to be safe, free from negative effects on health, just as any other consumer product.
The often advertisements were done on local dailies and seldom features were done on regional publications.”Bull Durham made” a genesis as the first conceptualized branding in the year 1869. The commercial insisted on “how easy it is to roll your own”. The United States of America and most of the European countries had not placed bottle necks and bans on cigarettes commercials. Various bans and suspensions were done as from the year 1970.
Types of appeals underlying the advertisement commercials of cigarettes.(discussed by Jib Fowles)
Using the research of Henry. A Murray (Psychologist), Fowles provides an understanding of how commercials and advertisement achieve the desired results of influencing the; feelings, appeal and subconscious judgment of cigarette smokers.
Based on the analysis of Fowles, it is evident that advertisers’ work smartly to compromise the judgment power of consumers (cigarette smokers), this is achieved by presenting the desires, expectations, and perceptions of the consumer through a skeptical packaged products.
Looking at several cigarette commercials on a platform of emotional appeal, then it is crystal clear that emotional appeal is just an ingredient of the luring force, this initiates a possibility of gratification and actualization of the person as depicted in the advertisement.
Commercials can then be viewed as having two phases that of compelling forces of coaxing in the minds of consumers, and secondly that of feeding product specifications to the society. These two phases are essential in decision making of the consumer (Behrens and Rosen)
Fowles outlines the different appeals of cigarettes as an issues of marketing through advertising, through which a specific brand of cigarette is packaged just to attract the different market segments. This are
Sexual appeal- To have loyal consumers Marlboro presented a strong masculine man, in this commercial the greatest emphasis was that if you wanted to be confident, you needed to puff Marlboro cigarette, just like that masculine figure in the advertisement. The tobacco manufacturers of Marlboro made an attention striking advert that if you needed to command respect, attention from women and have things flow your way, all you needed is smoke Marlboro.
Appreciation of aggressiveness.-The need for aggressiveness in the society is considered an attribute of determination an courage, this is placed in Triumph cigarette commercial in which models are drawn as models of courage despite the laughter’s on the background
Association and class.- Benson & Heghes is considered a rich mans’ smoke, this may be true because of it retail price, Amazingly its among the expensive cigarettes. Consumers who would desire to be distinguished by being moneyed would easily be coaxed in buying the high end consumer product (benson & heghes) “pure gold”.
Peer influence and Age loyalty.- Its strongly believed that Joe Camel Brand, was targeted on young smokers, this is an assumption out of its campaign strategy that its packaging and commercials are welcoming to young smokers. This led Lobby groups to mount pressure to the Federal trade commission to intervene and prevent negative influence on under age smoking, which it did and on 10th July 1997 Camel ended the campaign. “I’d walk a mile for a camel for digestion’s sake. Smoke camels. Camels-where a man belongs”.
The analysis outlined by Fowles clearly portrays the advertisements and commercials of cigarettes are focused on servicing a market segment with its distinguishing desires. Further to this the segments are out of social classification (desires, status, upbringing, affiliations).
The advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco products has come under sharp criticism, characterized by heavy bans, harsh penalties on non-compliance. This has been sponsored by vibrant anti-smoking lobby groups, who strive to bring consciousness on the negative health implication of cigarette smoking.
The notable change that has taken place with the cigarette brands is the packaging presentation and fierce price wars, Trends among consumers has changed by a notable discontinue of tobacco products due to intense lobbying from anti-smoking umbrellas in collaboration with the government.
Behrens, Laurence and Leonardo J. Rosen. Writing and Reading Across The Curriculum. 11th ed. London: Longman Publishing Group, 2010. Print.
Coke, Michael. “Creating and Capturing Customer Value”. Michael Cloke Academy of Marketing Business IT Consulting. 2012. Web 10 Feb. 2012.
Shimp, Terence A. Advertising, promotion, and other aspects of integrated marketing communications. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.