ABSTRACT how satisfied or dissatisfied one is with

ABSTRACT

The present study
investigates the relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction.
Motivation has been treated as a dependent and Job Satisfaction as an
independent variable. The respondents were the employees of one of the public
sector giants of India, BSNL and the data has been colleted from 45 white color
employees (supervisors and above) of BSNL, Saharanpur. Primary data has been
collected by the researcher through two different standard structured
questionnaires based on a five pointer likert scale. The results show a positive
correlation between motivation and job satisfaction i.e., motivation increases
with increase in job satisfaction and vice-versa. The results of the study also
indicate that, motivation remains unaffected of both age as well as the length
of the service of the employees. It may be because of the fact that the factors
responsible for motivation and satisfaction seem to be present in the working
environment of the organization. The paper also finds the relative importance
of different factors that contribute to the satisfaction of employees;
Compensation Package emerged as the most important factor, whereas the Self
Actualization appears to be the least important factor.

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INTRODUCTION

Work plays a dominant
role in our lives. It occupies more of our time than any other activity. We
define ourselves in part by our career or profession, it is very difficult to
enjoy life without doing some productive work, and any activity which has so
much importance must evoke strong positive or negative reactions from and these
reactions tell how satisfied or dissatisfied one is with his/her work. Job
satisfaction is so important in that its absence often leads to lethargy and
reduced organizational commitment (Levinson, 1997, Moser, 1997). Lack of job
satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Alexander, Lichtenstein and
Hellmann, 1997; Jamal, 1997).

One of the most important
factors that lead one to their goals is the drive. This drive is known as
motivation. It is a zest and determination with a kind of excitement that leads
one to persevere to reach greater heights, in no matter what avenue of their
life; be it personal or professional. The drive may come from an internal or
external source. The individual determines this. If managers know what drives
the people working for them, they can tailor job assignments and rewards to
what makes these people ìtick.î Motivation can also be conceived of as whatever
it takes to encourage workers to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their
needs. According to Olajidebe outside the goals of any organization whether
public, private, or nonprofitî. Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most
significant motivational strategy. Though way back Abraham Maslow (1943), gave
a model that shows that factors that motivate an individual keep changing as
one climbs the ladder of age and maturity. And also, achievement of one goal
sets the ball rolling for another one to be achieved. Thus, to be motivated is
a constant need. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and
everything seems bleak. It is then that they need to find what would motivate
them back into action. According to Carlyle’s ìGreat Man Theoryî (1888) an
organization’s achievements are its employee’s achievements. This theory shows
how important employees are for an organization and how important it is that
they are satisfied, motivated and hence productive. As it is a well known fact
that these two factors i.e., Motivation and Job Satisfaction have a great
impact on the performance of an employee as well as the organization thus, the
study of relationship between these two variables unarguably becomes a topic of
prime importance and of great interest for study and further research. Before
moving further let us look at what other prominent and eminent researchers have
to say about these two factors or what they have found earlier in their
studies. Review of Literature Crites (1985) has aptly distinguished between job
satisfaction and job attitudes. He observes, ìIf it is some specific aspect of
the job such as duties and tasks or working conditions, then the concept which
is defined would be job attitudesî. If it is the overall job in which the
individual is presently employed, then the concept would be job satisfaction
According to Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom (2002), Job Satisfaction is a set
of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their
work. It is anbe outside the goals of any organization whether public, private,
or nonprofitî. Akintoye (2000) asserts that money remains the most significant
motivational strategy. Though way back Abraham Maslow (1943), gave a model that
shows that factors that motivate an individual keep changing as one climbs the
ladder of age and maturity. And also, achievement of one goal sets the ball
rolling for another one to be achieved. Thus, to be motivated is a constant
need. There are times when one faces a period of de-motivation and everything
seems bleak. It is then that they need to find what would motivate them back
into action. According to Carlyle’s ìGreat Man Theoryî (1888) an organization’s
achievements are its employee’s achievements. This theory shows how important
employees are for an organization and how important it is that they are
satisfied, motivated and hence productive. As it is a well known fact that
these two factors i.e., Motivation and Job Satisfaction have a great impact on
the performance of an employee as well as the organization thus, the study of
relationship between these two variables unarguably becomes a topic of prime
importance and of great interest for study and further research. Before moving
further let us look at what other prominent and eminent researchers have to say
about these two factors or what they have found earlier in their studies.
Review of Literature Crites (1985) has aptly distinguished between job
satisfaction and job attitudes. He observes, ìIf it is some specific aspect of
the job such as duties and tasks or working conditions, then the concept which
is defined would be job attitudesî. If it is the overall job in which the
individual is presently employed, then the concept would be job satisfaction
According to Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom (2002), Job Satisfaction is a set
of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view
their work. It is anexamine the effect of individual attributes, job
characteristics, and organizational variables on three aspects of work
motivation: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement.
They find that managers have varying degrees of influence over these different
aspects of work motivation, with greatest influence over job satisfaction and
least influence over job involvement. A number of variables are important for
work motivation, including public service motivation, advancement
opportunities, role clarity; job routine ness, and group culture. Motivation
basically has two dimensions (Anonymous, 2010), one being ìmaking employees
work better, more efficiently and effectivelyî from the point of view of
managers, the other being ìenabling employees to do their jobs in the best way
with enjoyment and desireî from the point of view of employees. Motivation and
Job Satisfaction has been considered to be affected by economic variables and
this fact cannot be denied but are not sufficient enough to have a prolonged
effect. However, it is seen that appeal to the motivating economic tools and
expecting from them more than needed does not seem to result in success very
much. Therefore, in planning rewarding, encouraging economic tools should be
employed in accordance with employees’ needs. In fact, there are ways of
increasing employees’ work motivation and satisfaction other than monetary
tools (Moncrief, 2010). Yasemin Oraman (2011), worked to evaluate the effective
dynamics of work motivation and job satisfaction of textile employees. It
analyzes the effectiveness of psycho-social, economic, organizational and
managerial tools over individuals’ motivation in terms of maintaining the
motivation and job satisfaction of the employees in the business. He came out
with the conclusions that economics tools by employee are positivelyexamine the
effect of individual attributes, job characteristics, and organizational
variables on three aspects of work motivation: job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, and job involvement. They find that managers have varying degrees
of influence over these different aspects of work motivation, with greatest
influence over job satisfaction and least influence over job involvement. A
number of variables are important for work motivation, including public service
motivation, advancement opportunities, role clarity; job routine ness, and
group culture. Motivation basically has two dimensions (Anonymous, 2010), one
being ìmaking employees work better, more efficiently and effectivelyî from the
point of view of managers, the other being ìenabling employees to do their jobs
in the best way with enjoyment and desireî from the point of view of employees.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction has been considered to be affected by economic
variables and this fact cannot be denied but are not sufficient enough to have
a prolonged effect. However, it is seen that appeal to the motivating economic
tools and expecting from them more than needed does not seem to result in
success very much. Therefore, in planning rewarding, encouraging economic tools
should be employed in accordance with employees’ needs. In fact, there are ways
of increasing employees’ work motivation and satisfaction other than monetary
tools (Moncrief, 2010). Yasemin Oraman (2011), worked to evaluate the effective
dynamics of work motivation and job satisfaction of textile employees. It
analyzes the effectiveness of psycho-social, economic, organizational and
managerial tools over individuals’ motivation in terms of maintaining the
motivation and job satisfaction of the employees in the business. He came out with
the conclusions that economics tools by employee are positively1. To find out
the Relationship between Motivation (Y) and Job Satisfaction (X). 2. To explore
the effects of Age and the Experience on the Motivational Level of the
Employees. 3. To find out the relative importance of the various Job Satisfying
factors Hypothesis 1. There is no significant difference between the Mean
Motivation Score of the high and low satisfied employees. 2. Motivation remains
unaffected of the age of the employees. 3. There is no significant relationship
between Motivation and the Length of Service of the employees. Research design
In the present study, Motivation has been treated as a dependent and Job
Satisfaction as an independent variable. Mathematically, relationship between
Motivation and Job Satisfaction is as below: M = f (JS) ‘M’ stands for
Motivation and ‘JS’ stands for Job Satisfaction Then independent variable (Job
Satisfaction) has been split into two groups: – high and low with reference to
the median of the variables scores in question. Above the median score is
representing high Job Satisfaction and below median score is low Job
Satisfaction of the employees. Thereafter, the mean motivational score of the
highly satisfied employees has been compared with the mean motivational score
of the low satisfied employees with a view to explore the impact of
satisfaction on motivation. Data collection As the research is descriptive in
nature the study relies on primary data collected from white collar employees,
working in BSNL, 1. To find out the Relationship between Motivation (Y) and Job
Satisfaction (X). 2. To explore the effects of Age and the Experience on the
Motivational Level of the Employees. 3. To find out the relative importance of
the various Job Satisfying factors Hypothesis 1. There is no significant
difference between the Mean Motivation Score of the high and low satisfied
employees. 2. Motivation remains unaffected of the age of the employees. 3.
There is no significant relationship between Motivation and the Length of
Service of the employees. Research design In the present study, Motivation has
been treated as a dependent and Job Satisfaction as an independent variable.
Mathematically, relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction is as below:
M = f (JS) ‘M’ stands for Motivation and ‘JS’ stands for Job Satisfaction Then
independent variable (Job Satisfaction) has been split into two groups: – high
and low with reference to the median of the variables scores in question. Above
the median score is representing high Job Satisfaction and below median score
is low Job Satisfaction of the employees. Thereafter, the mean motivational
score of the highly satisfied employees has been compared with the mean
motivational score of the low satisfied employees with a view to explore the
impact of satisfaction on motivation. Data collection As the research is
descriptive in nature the study relies on primary data collected from white
collar employees, working in BSNL, Table 2 Length of service-wise distribution
of respondents Length of service No. of %age (in years) Employees Below 10 11
24.4 10-20 23 51.2 Above 20 11 24.4 The Table 2 gives an idea about the
distribution of the employees on the basis of their years of experience in the
organization. It can be inferred from the above table that majority of the
employees (51.2%) fall under the category of 10 to 20 years of experience. It
implies that the organization consists mostly of rich in experience white color
employees. If we combine the above percentage with the employees who are with
21 years and above experience it amounts to 75.6% of employees, this further
substantiates the richness of the experience of the employees. In Table 4, we
bifurcated the motivational scores of the employees belonging to the High and
Low Job Satisfaction groups and thereafter the mean motivational scores of high
and low satisfied groups were calculated. For testing the significance of the
difference between the mean scores obtained we calculated the Z-Static at 95% confidence
level and alpha=.05 which came out to be 8.759528. We compared this with the
critical Z value and found it to be much greater and hence we rejected our
first null hypothesis. The analysis provides ample evidence to infer that:
there is a significant difference (Note: respondents scoring 30 and above have
been considered as highly job satisfied and motivated) It can be inferred from
Table 3 that more than 80% of the employees belong to the group of highly
satisfied and motivated employees. This inference also tells us that most of
the factors responsible for satisfaction and motivation are present in the
organization, while to further substantiate this we will go for further
statistical analysis. (Note: respondents scoring 30 and above have been
considered as highly job satisfied and motivated) It can be inferred from Table
3 that more than 80% of the employees belong to the group of highly satisfied
and motivated employees. This inference also tells us that most of the factors
responsible for satisfaction and motivation are present in the organization,
while to further substantiate this we will go for further statistical analysis.
increase in the Job Satisfaction level of the employees and vice-versa. This
strong positive Testing the Significance of a Correlation Further, to ascertain
whether the observed correlation between motivation and Job Satisfaction is
merely due to chance or the correlation is a real one statistical significance
was tested by using the value table. It was found that the critical value given
in the value table was 0.374, whereas the correlation between the two values
was 0.822134 which was much higher than the critical value given in the table.
Therefore, it may be inferred safely that the correlation between the variables
under study is statistically significant and it is a real one and not merely
because of chance. Coefficient of Determination In our case r = 0.822134 thus
r2 = 0.68 is 68% Thus 68% of the variation in the value of Job Satisfaction (Y)
is accountable to Motivation (X) in this case and the rest may be depending on
some other factors which are not the part of the study so are considerer here
to be out of scope. As we know that correlation only tells us that there is a
relationship between two or more variables and it does not tells us the kind of
correlation between the two variables is also evident from the graph shown in
the figure 1. relationship that exists. So to further substantiate our results
let us find the Regression between the two variables under study and find what
kind of relationship exists. Regression analysis As the coefficient of
correlation tells only that there is a relationship between the two variables
but it does not clarify the kind of relationship existing between the two variables.
Therefore, regression analysis was carried out to examine the kind of
relationship existing between Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The functional
relationship between the two variables under study may be understood with the
help of the line of regression of motivation on Job Satisfaction. M = a + bJ (M
= Motivation and J = Job Satisfaction while ‘a’ and ‘b’ are constants) We need
to find out the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ and put it in the above equation to
establish a functional relationship between the two variables. The final
regression equation comes out to be: M = 10.95 + 0.72J Relationship of
Motivation to Experience and Length of Service Table 5 Relationship between
Motivation and Age of employees Age Group Below 30-45 45- total (years)/ 30
above Motivation level High 5 17 3 25 Low 7 7 6 20 total 12 24 9 45 Table 5
shows the distribution of employees on the basis of there age and the level of
motivation they fall into. It can be inferred from the table 5 that most of the
employees i.e., 70% belonging to the 35-45 age group are motivated. While the
case is completely different in the other two age groups. To establish
relationship between these two variables the Chi-square for test of
independence of two attributes (Table 5) was used that came out to be 0.081829.
The critical value at alpha = .05 and degree of freedom = 2 is 5.99. Since, the
calculated value was less than the critical value hence the null hypothesis was
accepted i.e., Motivation remains unaffected of the age of the employees. Table
No. 6 : Relationship between Motivation and Length of Service Age Group Below
10-20 21- total (years)/ 10 above Motivation level High 5 17 5 27 Low 6 6 6 18
total 11 23 11 45 Table 6 shows the distribution of employees on the basis of
there Length of Relationship of Motivation to Experience and Length of Service
Table 5 Relationship between Motivation and Age of employees Age Group Below
30-45 45- total (years)/ 30 above Motivation level High 5 17 3 25 Low 7 7 6 20
total 12 24 9 45 Table 5 shows the distribution of employees on the basis of
there age and the level of motivation they fall into. It can be inferred from
the table 5 that most of the employees i.e., 70% belonging to the 35-45 age
group are motivated. While the case is completely different in the other two
age groups. To establish relationship between these two variables the
Chi-square for test of independence of two attributes (Table 5) was used that
came out to be 0.081829. The critical value at alpha = .05 and degree of
freedom = 2 is 5.99. Since, the calculated value was less than the critical
value hence the null hypothesis was accepted i.e., Motivation remains
unaffected of the age of the employees. Table No. 6 : Relationship between
Motivation and Length of Service Age Group Below 10-20 21- total (years)/ 10
above Motivation level High 5 17 5 27 Low 6 6 6 18 total 11 23 11 45 Table 6
shows the distribution of employees on the basis of there Length of 3. The Age
and the Length of service of the employees do not bear any impact on the
Motivational level of the employees. 4. The most important factor affecting the
satisfaction level of employees came out to be compensation package which got
the maximum weightage (419/500). This was inferred directly from the responses
of the employees which the employees indicated in the questionnaire. 5. The
least important factor affecting the satisfaction level of employees came out
to be self actualization which got the minimum weightage (280/500). The
sequence of factors according to their importance in decreasing order for Job
Satisfaction, inferred directly from the questionnaire responses of the
respondents: ? Compensation package ? Responsibility at work ? Empowerment at
work ? Achievement ? Learning opportunities ? Recognition ? Growth
opportunities in career ? Challenging assignments ? Job enrichment ? Self
actualization Suggestions Organization should focus its efforts m more on
designing better Compensation Packages, delegation of responsibility to
workers, and Empowerment of employees. Also it has been observed that the level
of Motivation among workers who are above the age of 45 years is low, though
the reasons for that are not known still organization should focus its
attention on that and must find out the reasons and do the needful. The same trend
can be seen in the employees having experience of more than 20 years. Thus it
makes it more imperative for the organization to focus on it and come out with
some solutions as these employees are the backbone of the organization.