ABSTRACT When it comes down to ownership

ABSTRACT

 

The
use of Linux based Operating Systems (OS) in the classroom is increasing, but
there is little research to address usability differences between Windows and
Linux based OSs. Moreover, studies related to the ability for students to
navigate effectively between Ubuntu 14.04 Long Term Support (LTS) and Windows 8
OSs are scant. This research aims to bridge the gap between modern Linux and
Windows Oss, as the former represents a viable alternative to eliminate licensing
costs for educational institutions. Ubuntu users did not require technical
support to use the system, while the majority found little inconsistency in the
system and regarded it as well integrated.

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INTRODUCTION

 

Presently,
adoption of Linux in the personal computers market is limited when compared to
the Microsoft Windows OS. When it comes down to ownership of OS, a client has
two options: to buy proprietary OS, such as those offered by Microsoft, or to
use open source OS free of charge. Microsoft Windows is a proprietary software,
which means it is closed, available at a cost, and its copyright is owned by
the developers. As a result, the source code is not available to the end user
and changes cannot be made. In contrast, open source systems (OS) allow end
users access to the source code and modifying rights for their personal use.

 

Considering
the access to the source code as a major advantage, it is puzzling that Linux
market share is still limited. This confusion is further compounded since a
number of studies demonstrate that adoption of open source software yields
reduction in costs and ease of customization. Moreover, Linux has been found to
be superior in customizability, security and even reliability.

 

 

OPERATING
SYSTEM

 

An
Operating System (OS) is defined as a program that acts as an intermediary
between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. It is a software
component that is responsible for the coordination of activities and sharing of
computer resources. An OS is a collection of system programs, tools and
utilities that manage computer hardware and offer general services for client
application software. The operating system is the first program to do several tasks
while focusing on the current task at hand. The first task is prompting the OS
to boot the computer. Within minutes, the computer will manage tests to make
sure everything is working properly, check for new hardware updates and then
start the operating system. Once the OS is working, its main focus is to handle
the specifics and writing capabilities. The operating system will coordinate
with each computer’s central processing unit (CPU), memory and storage to make
sure that every program functions properly. An OS runs user application
programs and provides a suitable interface to communicate with the computers’
hardware.

 

The
main purpose of an OS is to provide management of computer resources and
control data flow. These resources include but are not limited to memory,
processors, input and output devices and abiding storage devices. The concept
provided for the operating system is usually in sets providing access.
Technologist uses their concepts when writing codes that are needed to obtain
the operating system.

 

History

 

Ubuntu is built on Debian’s architecture and substructure,
and includes Linux server, desktop and discontinued phone and tablet operating
system versions.Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months,
and each release receives free support for nine month with security fixes,
high-impact bug fixes and unadventurous, markedly beneficial low-risk bug fixes.

Starting with Ubuntu 6.06, every fourth release,
one release every two years, receives long-term support. LTS releases get
regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the
updates published in that series to date.

Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal
as to ensure the continuity of the Ubuntu project.
On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for
3rd-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2.
Since Ubuntu 17.10, GNOME 3 is the default GUI for Ubuntu
Desktop, while Unity is still the default in older versions, including all
current LTS versions.

 

FEATURES

 

A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide
range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird,
Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess. Many
additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software
Center as well as any other APT-based package management tools.

 

SECURITY

For increased security, the sudo tool is used
to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which
allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users
from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security
holes.32 PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop. Most
network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking.33 A built-in firewall
allows end-users who install network servers to control access. By default, the
user’s programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system
or other users’ files.

RELEASES

Technical
Support

 

Technical
support is defined as the need for help provided by knowledgeable individuals
to users of computer hardware and software products (Wilson, 1991). In this
study, technical support is regarded as coaching and consultation for the
installation of OS on a virtual environment. Moreover, lack of need for
technical support can be regarded as a positive factor toward cost reduction
and ease of use.

 

Virtualization
is referred to as the use of virtualization software that allows physical
hardware of a single PC

 to run numerous operating systems
simultaneously on virtual machines (VM). A VM is a fully protected and isolated
copy of the underlying physical machine’s hardware. Each user is given the
impression of having a decent physical computer. This study argued that lack of
need for technical support during the installation of the system. Figure 1
provides a screenshot of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS running on a VM on theWindows 8.1
desktop.

 

Figure 1:
Screenshot of Ubuntu 14.04 VMware VM Running on Windows 8.1 Desktop.

 

Performance

 

The minimum system requirements for Ubuntu
14.04 LTS supports Integrated Electronics (Intel) and an Advanced Micro Devices
(AMD) processors based on computers that run Microsoft Windows and
AppleMacintosh systems. Ubuntu 14.10
LTS and Windows 8.1 need certain hardware components and these prerequisites
are known as system requirements. In
addition, the demand for higher processor power and resources are included in
the newer system requirements. The
minimum system requirements for Windows 8.1 are higher than Windows 7. In contrast, Windows 8.1 is a personal
operating system that is geared toward Intel-based PC architectures. The system requirements vary among Ubuntu
products.
A majority of
the software specifications has two types of system requirements: minimum or
recommended.
Depending on
the computer needs, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and
Xubuntu for less processor power. Windows
Store application requires a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run.

 

 

Usability

These include
product-oriented (ergonomic attributes) and user-oriented (user mental effort
and attitude, user performance and user interaction). Usability is considered
the efficiency, efficiency and gratification quantified when users attain
specific goals in a certain environment. The usability of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS was
approached from the perspective of the user-oriented approach.

 

Integration

 

Previous
Windows graphical user interfaces had four or more applications on one single
screen at one time, but not anymore. Windows 8.1
gives users a similar graphical user interface like Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. User interface simply means a person controls
a software application or hardware device at their own removal. Their role is to rally the user experience by
inventing interface applications that are more creative, learnable and
consistent. Microsoft have
completely changed their interfaces with pop-up windows, scroll bars, buttons
and tiny Start buttons just to make them different from the next contender in
their market.

Figure 2 displays the differences in both
graphical user interfaces for each operating systems.

 

 

Figure 2: Displays Graphical User
Interfaces for both operating systems

.

 

CONCLUSION

 

This research attempted to answer
the following research question: how is Linux OS perceived by users in terms of
usability, integration of functionality and need for technical support in
educational institutions when compared to Windows OS? For this purpose, several
factors from the OS were examined (mainly performance, usability, integration
and technical support) and the SUS instrument was used to observe users’
perceptions of the Linux OS Ubuntu.ABSTRACT

 

The
use of Linux based Operating Systems (OS) in the classroom is increasing, but
there is little research to address usability differences between Windows and
Linux based OSs. Moreover, studies related to the ability for students to
navigate effectively between Ubuntu 14.04 Long Term Support (LTS) and Windows 8
OSs are scant. This research aims to bridge the gap between modern Linux and
Windows Oss, as the former represents a viable alternative to eliminate licensing
costs for educational institutions. Ubuntu users did not require technical
support to use the system, while the majority found little inconsistency in the
system and regarded it as well integrated.

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Presently,
adoption of Linux in the personal computers market is limited when compared to
the Microsoft Windows OS. When it comes down to ownership of OS, a client has
two options: to buy proprietary OS, such as those offered by Microsoft, or to
use open source OS free of charge. Microsoft Windows is a proprietary software,
which means it is closed, available at a cost, and its copyright is owned by
the developers. As a result, the source code is not available to the end user
and changes cannot be made. In contrast, open source systems (OS) allow end
users access to the source code and modifying rights for their personal use.

 

Considering
the access to the source code as a major advantage, it is puzzling that Linux
market share is still limited. This confusion is further compounded since a
number of studies demonstrate that adoption of open source software yields
reduction in costs and ease of customization. Moreover, Linux has been found to
be superior in customizability, security and even reliability.

 

 

OPERATING
SYSTEM

 

An
Operating System (OS) is defined as a program that acts as an intermediary
between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. It is a software
component that is responsible for the coordination of activities and sharing of
computer resources. An OS is a collection of system programs, tools and
utilities that manage computer hardware and offer general services for client
application software. The operating system is the first program to do several tasks
while focusing on the current task at hand. The first task is prompting the OS
to boot the computer. Within minutes, the computer will manage tests to make
sure everything is working properly, check for new hardware updates and then
start the operating system. Once the OS is working, its main focus is to handle
the specifics and writing capabilities. The operating system will coordinate
with each computer’s central processing unit (CPU), memory and storage to make
sure that every program functions properly. An OS runs user application
programs and provides a suitable interface to communicate with the computers’
hardware.

 

The
main purpose of an OS is to provide management of computer resources and
control data flow. These resources include but are not limited to memory,
processors, input and output devices and abiding storage devices. The concept
provided for the operating system is usually in sets providing access.
Technologist uses their concepts when writing codes that are needed to obtain
the operating system.

 

History

 

Ubuntu is built on Debian’s architecture and substructure,
and includes Linux server, desktop and discontinued phone and tablet operating
system versions.Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months,
and each release receives free support for nine month with security fixes,
high-impact bug fixes and unadventurous, markedly beneficial low-risk bug fixes.

Starting with Ubuntu 6.06, every fourth release,
one release every two years, receives long-term support. LTS releases get
regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the
updates published in that series to date.

Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal
as to ensure the continuity of the Ubuntu project.
On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for
3rd-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2.
Since Ubuntu 17.10, GNOME 3 is the default GUI for Ubuntu
Desktop, while Unity is still the default in older versions, including all
current LTS versions.

 

FEATURES

 

A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide
range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird,
Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess. Many
additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software
Center as well as any other APT-based package management tools.

 

SECURITY

For increased security, the sudo tool is used
to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which
allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users
from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security
holes.32 PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop. Most
network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking.33 A built-in firewall
allows end-users who install network servers to control access. By default, the
user’s programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system
or other users’ files.

RELEASES

Technical
Support

 

Technical
support is defined as the need for help provided by knowledgeable individuals
to users of computer hardware and software products (Wilson, 1991). In this
study, technical support is regarded as coaching and consultation for the
installation of OS on a virtual environment. Moreover, lack of need for
technical support can be regarded as a positive factor toward cost reduction
and ease of use.

 

Virtualization
is referred to as the use of virtualization software that allows physical
hardware of a single PC

 to run numerous operating systems
simultaneously on virtual machines (VM). A VM is a fully protected and isolated
copy of the underlying physical machine’s hardware. Each user is given the
impression of having a decent physical computer. This study argued that lack of
need for technical support during the installation of the system. Figure 1
provides a screenshot of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS running on a VM on theWindows 8.1
desktop.

 

Figure 1:
Screenshot of Ubuntu 14.04 VMware VM Running on Windows 8.1 Desktop.

 

Performance

 

The minimum system requirements for Ubuntu
14.04 LTS supports Integrated Electronics (Intel) and an Advanced Micro Devices
(AMD) processors based on computers that run Microsoft Windows and
AppleMacintosh systems. Ubuntu 14.10
LTS and Windows 8.1 need certain hardware components and these prerequisites
are known as system requirements. In
addition, the demand for higher processor power and resources are included in
the newer system requirements. The
minimum system requirements for Windows 8.1 are higher than Windows 7. In contrast, Windows 8.1 is a personal
operating system that is geared toward Intel-based PC architectures. The system requirements vary among Ubuntu
products.
A majority of
the software specifications has two types of system requirements: minimum or
recommended.
Depending on
the computer needs, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and
Xubuntu for less processor power. Windows
Store application requires a screen resolution of 1024×768 or higher to run.

 

 

Usability

These include
product-oriented (ergonomic attributes) and user-oriented (user mental effort
and attitude, user performance and user interaction). Usability is considered
the efficiency, efficiency and gratification quantified when users attain
specific goals in a certain environment. The usability of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS was
approached from the perspective of the user-oriented approach.

 

Integration

 

Previous
Windows graphical user interfaces had four or more applications on one single
screen at one time, but not anymore. Windows 8.1
gives users a similar graphical user interface like Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. User interface simply means a person controls
a software application or hardware device at their own removal. Their role is to rally the user experience by
inventing interface applications that are more creative, learnable and
consistent. Microsoft have
completely changed their interfaces with pop-up windows, scroll bars, buttons
and tiny Start buttons just to make them different from the next contender in
their market.

Figure 2 displays the differences in both
graphical user interfaces for each operating systems.

 

 

Figure 2: Displays Graphical User
Interfaces for both operating systems

.

 

CONCLUSION

 

This research attempted to answer
the following research question: how is Linux OS perceived by users in terms of
usability, integration of functionality and need for technical support in
educational institutions when compared to Windows OS? For this purpose, several
factors from the OS were examined (mainly performance, usability, integration
and technical support) and the SUS instrument was used to observe users’
perceptions of the Linux OS Ubuntu.