ABSTRACT: wireless camerashave been used. A smart phoneempowers

ABSTRACT: In this project, IOTtechnology helps in collectinginformation about conditions likeweather, moisture, temperature andfertility of soil, Crop online monitoring.IOT leverages farmers to get connectedto his farm from anywhere and anytime.Wireless sensor networks are used formonitoring the farm conditions andmicro controllers are used to controland automate the farm processes. Toview remotely the conditions in the formof image and video, wireless camerashave been used. A smart phoneempowers farmer to keep updated withthe ongoing conditions of hisagricultural land using IOT at any timeand any part of the world.KEYWORD: Internet of Things (IoT),Interfacing Sensors.1. INTRODUCTION :In India about 70% of population dependsupon farming and one third of the nationalcapital comes from farming. The solutionto this problem to make agriculture assmart. The highlighting features of thisproject includes weather forecasting, watermanagement, canal controlling in bothautomatic and manual modes and all thesedata are stored and displayed in a mobileapplication. Based on the fixed criteria, thealert SMS and notification is send to theuser. Controlling of all these operationscan done by an application which isconnected to internet and operations willbe performed by interfacing sensors,Wireless Fidelity etc.2. PROBLEM IDENTITY:Farmers often face challenges in irrigatingmethods based on the crop features.Due to unconditional weather, the waterlevel increases which is not good forcrop’s development.Normally the farmers have to manage thewater level of the field by opening andclosing the canal manually to reduce theworkflow of farmers the watermanagement, canal controlling is doneusing IOT in both automatic ; manualmodes using mobile app.3. RELATED WORKS:Smart Water Management Using IOTThis system can be easily installed inresidential societies which help to manageand plan the usage of water. Sensorsplaced in the tank which continuouslyinforms the water level at the current time.This information will be updated on thecloud and using an android application,user can visualize the water level on aSmartphone anywhere that is connected toInternet. According to the level of water inthe tank the motor functioning will beautomatically controlled, at low level ofwater motor will automatically turn on andwhen tank is about to fill up it will cut off.It is a robust system ; small in size and itcan be monitored continuously fromanywhere using android application. Thisdevice can be implemented at personallevel. It can be implemented in industriallevel area. In industry it can be used tocheck water levels of different tanksconsisting of different types of water.According to the level of waternotifications will be sent to the authorizedperson. At industry instead of electricwires we can use ultrasonic sensors whichprovide more accurate and calibratedinformation. It can also be implement inflood prone areas to alert the people bysending notification to the nearby peopleliving. This can be done by implementingthe device at the banks of the rivers whichare flood prone. So if water level risesabove a certain level notification will bedisplayed on app and alert can be send toeveryone.A Hybrid Intrusion Detection Architecturefor Internet of ThingsInternet of things (IoT) is an emergingparadigm wherein smart and resource-constrained objects can connect to Internetby using a wide range of technologies.Since IoT is a hybrid network, which iscomposed of the Internet and the networkswith heterogeneous nodes, It providesaccessibility to the Internet for all physicalobjects. Due to the insecure nature ofInternet and also wireless sensor networks(WSNs), which are the main componentsof IoT, implementing security mechanismsin IoT seems necessary. To deal withintrusions which may occur in IoT, a novelintrusion detection architecture model forIoT. This model is based on MapReduceapproach with the aim of distributeddetection. To provide multi-faceteddetection (from the Internet and WSNssides), The proposed model used a real-time anomaly detection module based onunsupervised OPF for detecting insider(internal) attacks which may be happenedin 6LoWAPN. On the other hand, amisuse-based intrusion detection engine,which was based on supervised OPF, wasresponsible for detecting cyber (external)attacks that may be occurred from Internet(or LANs) side. The experimental resultsshow the superior performance insimultaneous detection of the insider andcyberattacks in IoT.Real-time intrusion detection in the Internetof ThingsIn the Internet of Things (IoT), resourceconstrained things are connected to theunreliable and untrusted Internet via IPv6and 6LoWPAN networks. Even when theyare secured with encryption andauthentication, these things are exposedboth to wireless attacks from inside the6LoWPAN network and from the Internet.Since these attacks may succeed, IntrusionDetection Systems (IDS) are necessary.Currently, there are no IDSs that meet therequirements of the IPv6-connected IoTsince the available approaches are eithercustomized for Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN) or for the conventional Internet. Inthis paper we design, implement, andevaluate a novel intrusion detection systemfor the IoT that we call SVELTE. In ourimplementation and evaluation weprimarily target routing attacks such asspoofed or altered information, sinkhole,and selective-forwarding. However, ourapproach can be extended to detect otherattacks. We implement SVELTE in theContiki OS and thoroughly evaluate it. Ourevaluation shows that in the simulatedscenarios, SVELTE detects all maliciousnodes that launch our implementedsinkhole and/or selective forwardingattacks. However, the true positive rate isnot 100%, i.e., we have some false alarmsduring the detection of malicious nodes.Survey data on cost and benefits of climatesmart agricultural technologies in westernKenyaThis information were collected in threecounties of western Kenya, namely Siaya,Bungoma, and Kakamega. The main aimof collecting the data was to assess theclimate smartness, profitability and returnsof soil protection and rehabilitationmeasures. The information were collectedfrom 88 households. The households wereselected using simple random samplingtechnique from a primary sampling frameof 180 farm households provided by theministry of agriculture through the countryagricultural officers. The surveys weredone using a structured questionnaire thatwas designed in Census and SurveyProcessing System (CSPro).A Model for Smart Agriculture Using IoTClimate changes and rainfall has beenerratic over the past decade. Due to this inrecent era, climate-smart methods called assmart agriculture is adopted by manyIndian farmers. Smart agriculture is anautomated and directed informationtechnology implemented with the IOT(Internet of Things). IOT is developingrapidly and widely applied in all wirelessenvironments. The sensor technology andwireless networks integration of IOTtechnology has been studied and reviewedbased on the actual situation of agriculturalsystem. A combined approach withinternet and wireless communications,Remote Monitoring System (RMS) isintroduced. Major objective is to collectreal time data of agriculture productionenvironment that provides easy access foragricultural facilities such as alerts throughShort Massaging Service (SMS).ICT havealways mattered in Agriculture domain.Village farmers may have planted the”same” crop for centuries, but over period,weather patterns and soil conditions andepidemics of pests and diseases changed.By using this approach, received updatedinformation allows the farmers to copewith and even benefit from these changes.The complete real-time and historicalenvironment information is expected tohelp to achieve efficient management andutilization of resources.Combined Radar–Radiometer Surface SoilMoisture and Roughness EstimationSoil moisture and roughness retrieval isperformed via optimization, i.e.,minimization, of a joint objective function,which constrains similar resolution radarand radiometer observationssimultaneously. A data-driven and noise-dependent regularization term has alsobeen developed to automatically regularizeand balance corresponding radar andradiometer contributions to achieveoptimal soil moisture retrievals. It isshown that in order to compensate formeasurement and observation noise, aswell as forward model inaccuracies, in C-AP estimation, surface roughness can beconsidered a free parameter. ExtensiveMonte Carlo numerical simulations andassessment using field data have beenperformed both to evaluate the algorithm’sperformance and to demonstrate soilmoisture estimation. Specifically, it wasshown here that surface soil moisture canbe estimated, while, at the same time,assuming surface roughness to be anotherunknown, yet free parameter. The goal isto develop and present a fully adaptivescheme where it becomes possible toobtain best soil moisture retrievals by fullyutilizing the available radar and radiometerinformation and not rely on a single set ofobservations or models. If, for a givenscenario, radar-only or radiometer-onlyapproaches, within the joint- optimizationframework, yield retrievals with leasterrors, the goal is still achieved. Twofeatures merit further detailedinvestigation. First, the effects of surfacecorrelation length are not considered inthis paper; the currently implementedforward scattering and emission modelsare the functions of only surface rmsheight.Architectural Framework of Smart WaterMeter Reading System In IoT EnvironmentInternet of Things (IoT) has providedpromising opportunities to create powerfulindustrial and domestic applications. Oneof its main applications is smart metering.Water is the most precious resource thatmust be used responsibly. Informationabout the usage of water can reduce thewater wastage and will help in watermanagement. Water flow and heatmeasurements are taken by water meter(STUF-280T) which is based on ultrasonicflow measurement technology. We havedescribed the Mediatek Cloud Sandboxwhich used for storage. For water meter tocommunicate with the cloud we have usedLink It ONE development board which isan open source platform for prototypingIoT devices. Also user can access, analyseand share data anytime, from anywhere.An Internet of Things (IoT) basedSustainable Water ManagementAs the availability of groundwater ishighly inconsistent and exhibits substantialvariations across the country, managementof groundwater resources in the Indiancontext is an extremely crucial proposition.So the sustainable water managementsystem based on Internet of Things (IoT),which automates the water distribution andstorage as well as regulation of waterwastage. The requirement analysis isperformed for Gudipadu Cheruvu, aremote rural village in Andhra Pradesh,India, where frequent water scarcity issuesoccur. An IoT system designed forsustainable water management isintroduced.Internet of Things (IoT) Enabled WaterMonitoring SystemWater is always a crucial part of everydaylife. Due to global environmental situation,water management and conservation isvital for human survival. In recent times,there were huge needs of consumer basedhumanitarian projects that could be rapidlydeveloped using Internet of Things (IoT)technology. The IoT based watermonitoring system that measures waterlevel in real-time. The prototype is basedon idea that the level of the water can bevery important parameter when it comes tothe flood occurrences especially in disasterprone areas. A water level sensor is used todetect the desired parameter, and if thewater level reaches the criteria, the signalwill be feed in real- time to social networklike Twitter. A cloud server wasconfigured as data repository. Themeasurement of the water levels aredisplayed in remote dashboard.Computers and Electronics in AgricultureThis paper reviews agro-industrial andenvironmental applications that are usingInternet of Things (IoT). It is motivated bythe need to identify application areas,trends, architectures and open challengesin these two fields. The underlying surveywas developed following a systematicliterature review using academicdocuments written in English andpublished in peer-reviewed venues from2006 to 2016. Selected references wereclustered into four application domainscorresponding to: monitoring, control,logistics, and prediction. Implementation-specific details from each selectedreference were compiled to create usagedistributions of sensors, actuators, powersources, edge computing modules,communication technologies, storagesolutions, and visualization strategies.Finally, the results from the review werecompiled into an IoT architecture thatrepresents a wide range of currentsolutions in agro-industrial andenvironmental fields.Smart Farming Using IOT:Abstract— Even today, differentdeveloping countries are also usingtraditional methods and backwardtechniques in agriculture sector. Little orvery less technological advancement isfound here that has increased theproduction efficiency significantly. Toincrease the productivity, a novel designapproach is presented in this paper. Smartfarming with the help of Internet of Things(IOT) has been designed. A remotecontrolled vehicle operates on bothautomatic and manual modes, for variousagriculture operations like spraying,cutting, weeding etc. The controller keepsmonitoring the temperature, humidity, soilcondition and accordingly supplies waterto the field.CONCLUSION :Based on using thegreen energy and smart technology theagriculture sector will find