Abstract : The aim of this paper is to monitor and
distribute the power in the solar based power systems remotely. The system
contains multiple grids of solar panels
where each grid is connected to various sensors to measure the parameters in
order to monitor the system. The output of the sensor is fed to the mini
microcontroller of this project (Arduino UNO). The output from all the mini
microcontrollers is given to the main microcontroller which is 8051
microcontroller in this case , which is in turn connected to a Bluetooth module
(HC-05). The main microcontroller (8051) processes all the received data from
the mini microcontrollers (Arduino UNO) and displays it on the LCD connected to
it and also sends this data via a Bluetooth module (HC-05) to user. The user remotely
monitors the data via a smartphone using Bluetooth Terminal application.
Monitoring of power system is implemented and tested in this manner. This paper
also aims towards the distribution of the power that was monitored before. The
user sends a signal to another microcontroller (Arduino Uno) wirelessly which
then controls the relay on the basis of the signal sent by the user. Now, the control signal from Arduino UNO is
used for switching of relay and power from the power system is distributed
accordingly. This is how power is
monitored and distributed in power stations (solar power system).
Keywords: 8051 , Arduino ,
HC-05 , Power Distribution , Power Monitoring
Electricity is one of the greatest technological
innovations of mankind. It has now become a part of our daily life and one
cannot think of a world without electricity. It plays a vital role in growth of
our country. With the fast growth of civilization there is also an
ever-mounting need for energy. There are many sources of energy. i.e.
Geothermal Energy, Fossil Fuels, Coal, Oil and Natural Gas, Hydro Power and
Ocean Energy, Nuclear Energy, Solar Energy, Wind Energy. Some of the energy we
can use is called as renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal and hydro) 1.
In the field of electrical or electronics current and energy consumption, which
may affect on stabilization of the components, are playing an important role.
Utilizing and saving are the only way for efficient power management 1. To
achieve an efficient power management system, the power needs to be monitored
and distributed to the various loads in a proper manner. In other words, the
power monitoring and distribution system should be designed efficiently for
maximum utilization of power.
A power monitoring system consists of a network of
sensors that provide real time data of the power system. These sensors which
are used are essentially monitoring tools which captures various parametric
values such as temperature, voltage, current, light intensity etc. and these
values can be distributed to various loads depending upon their power
requirements 234. The topic of power monitoring has become more relevant
due to all of the interest in saving energy. Power monitoring is well suited
for managing your energy cost and efficiency because you can see in real time
what’s going on. Implementing a power monitoring system can help identify power
quality problems and it protect devices from damaging currents and surges
37. The data in terms of temperature, voltage values, current values
obtained by the power monitoring systems needs to efficiently utilized. This can
be done using an efficient power distribution system. This system can consist
of various types of loads with different power specifications. Depending upon
the values monitored, they can be distributed to these loads. This efficient
system ensures that there is no wastage in power and all the loads are given
the required amount of power 2.
In this paper, the power system used is a grid of
solar panels. A solar panel is device consisting of many solar cells that
absorbs sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. They convert
the sunlight absorbed to electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Each of
the solar panel grid is connected to temperature, voltage and current sensors
connected to it that measures these analog values from the solar cells.
The analog temperature, voltage and current values
obtained by the various sensors connected to the solar panels are transferred
to an Arduino Uno. The main objective of using an Arduino Uno is to gather data
from individual sensors in a grid. After this, these values are sent to the
8051microcontroller and it is dynamically displayed on the LCD. These values
are also sent to the module app via Bluetooth module. Also, relays are
connected to solar panels and controlled by an Arduino to distribute power to
the given loads.
Solar panels are devices
that cleanly convert renewable energy into electricity and offer a practical
solution to energy management in environment friendly way for domestic and
industrial purposes 1. This system constantly provides information from the
plant to GSM and helps user to monitor it.
In 2, the system is designed and constructed microcontroller based
power distribution to all departments in university campus.
In this system, PIC18F4550 microcontroller is
used for power distribution. Visual Basic in the Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 is
used in the construction of GUI and USB cable is used as a connector between
PIC and PC 2.
In 3, it is proposed method to efficiently manage electricity with the help
of GSM technology. Using GSM
networks an embedded system has been proposed which can control electrical
appliances, monitor their associated energy meter readings and send timely
energy consumption to user via SMS.
The use of single power solar system in generation of electricity for
streetlights nowadays is widely used 4. In 4, the use of ACS712 current sensor and voltage
sensor using voltage divider circuit with GSM communication system allows to
monitor both the battery and the solar panel. This microcontroller then send
the data through a GSM communication system to a server, via short message
service (SMS). This server then processed the data by parsing the information
from the SMS, and send the data to a web server database. This information then
can be accessed by internet.
In 6, an integrated SMS alert and remote control system for a generator.
In remote areas, the need for monitoring PhotoVoltaic (PV) system is
crucial to ensure stable PV power delivery 5. In 5, the monitoring system
is equipped with voltage sensor, current sensor, temperature sensor and
irradiation sensor and GSM modem for data transmission. Real time clock chip is
used for real time recording.
In 7, Due to the rapid development in automation system, control and
monitoring are necessary for any modern system. DCS provides this control and
monitoring for industrial automation. The system is designed and constructed Distributed
Control System (DCS) based power distribution in university campus.