ABSTRACT greatest threat in the society. The speed

ABSTRACT

According
to the survey 1.24 million people die every year due to the road accidents. The
road accidents occurs mainly because of the drivers who fail to maintain the
speed limit that is mentioned in the particular area intentionally or
unintentionally. This  paper will be a
solution to this greatest threat in the society. The speed limit in particular
zone is indicated on the road side by the speed limit boards but it is not
maintained by the drivers practically. In this proposed system, it allows to
restrict the speed of the vehicle in accordance with the speed limit to be
maintained in that area. The speed limit board contains transmitter section and
vehicles will have receiver part. If the vehicle enters the speed limited zone,
then vehicle is controlled to the particular speed automatically.So the speed
limits will be maintained by all the vehicles crossing the area. Also, in case
if accident occurs, then GPS will locate the position of the vehicle and the
accident spot will be sent as a message to the ambulance using GSM module. The
accident occurrence is sensed by the vibration sensors fixed in vehicle.

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Keywords:
speed control, speed limits, GSM, GPS.

I. INTRODUCTION

Road
 accidents causes approximately  millions of  people death every year. There are several
precautionary measures  that are need to
be taken to prevent these accidents. According to World Health Organisation, if
there is no further action  taken ,by the
year 2020, the death rate will be around 1.9 million and it will increase further1.

Another
important fact behind road accidents, include inadequate institutes to train
the drivers which results in the lack of driving skill, the

 

improper
road surfaces, usage of mobile phones while driving, driving under the
influence of intoxicating substances, over loading the vehicles and poor
leadership and lack of traffic law enforcement. Solving these issues would
ultimately have a positive effect on social and economic of people in
developing countries2.

At
present, the industry is increasingly shifting towards automation. Two
principle components of today’s industrial automations are program and
controllers. In order to aid the tedious work and to serve the mankind, today
there is a general tendency to develop an intelligent operation. This paper is
an owe to the technical advancement. This prototype system can be applied
effectively and efficiently in an expanded dimension to fit for the requirement
of industrial, research and commercial applications.

 High speed results fatal road accidents and
injuries3.The mechanical conditions of the vehicle matters in the safe
drive4.

Microcontroller
is the heart of the device which handles all the sub devices connected across
it. Here  Arduino Uno board is used. It
has flash type memory.

II.RELATED WORKS

A
lot of research work has been done in this area of accident prevention.
According to the different research studies the main cause of the accidents is
human drivers due to the different causes. The accident causes are classified
into three different factors such as environmental, physical, and mental. And
these multi-factor based road accident prevention system works on the rules
defined in the fuzzy system and take action according to the severity of the
condition to avoid road collision 5.

In
another study, using sensors the speed of the vehicle is detected and intimated
to the driver. So that the driver should maintain the speed limit. If not, the
information about the particular vehicle and driver will be tracked by the
control room and those information will be send to the nearby police station
6.

And
in anotherrelated study, the road surface  
monitoring which is verymuch essential for the municipal corporations as
well as for the travellers to choose the best road possible. Potholes and speed
breakers are detected using android’s build-in accelerometer7.

In
another study, automatic speed control of vehicle and accident avoidance is
done using eye blink sensor and ultrasonic sensor. Whenever any obstacle is
detected in running vehicle the ultrasonic sensor detect the distance
automatically and speed of the vehicle is controlled. When the driver is in
sleeping or drowse position the  eye
blink sensor detects eye blink is not more than 30 sec, the vehicle stops
automatically 8.

III.BLOCK DIAGRAM

A.TRANSMITTER

Key:
It is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a
process. The surface is usually flat shaped to accommodate the human finger so
as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switched,
although many un-biased buttons still require a spring to return to their
un-pushed state.

Encoder: HT12E is a 2^12 series
encoder IC widely used in remote control and very common among radio
frequency(RF) applications.It is capabable of converting 12 bit parallel inputs
into serial output. These bits are classified into 8(A0-A7) address bits and
4(AD0-AD3) data bits.Using the address pins we can provide 8 bit security code
for secured data transmission between the encoder and decoder.

RF Transmitter: RF module is used
to transmit radio signals between two devices.The main application of RF module
is to communicate with other device wirelessly.An RF transmitter module is a
small size PCB cabable of transfering a radio wave and modulating  radio wave to carry data. The transmitter is
usually subjected to controlling requirements which comand the maximum
acceptable transmitter power output, band edge and harmonic requirements.

B.RECEIVER:

Arduinouno:Arduinouno
is a micro controller board based on the ATmega 328. It has 14 digital
input,output pins(of which 6 can be used as PWM output), 6 analoginputs,a16 MHz
ceramic resonator,a USB connection,a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset
button.It’s operating voltage is 5v.

RF
receiver: An RF receiver module takes the modulated RF signal to demodulate it.
They offer increased stability and accuracy over a large temperature and
voltage range

Decoder:
It converts serial input into parallel outputs. It decodes the serial addresses
and data received by RF receiver into parallel data and send them to output
data pins.

Vibration
sensor: The type of vibration sensor used here is piezoelectric sensor. It is a
device that uses piezoelectric effect to measure changes in pressure,
acceleration or force by converting them to an electrical charge.

Comparator:
The comparator used here is LM358. It is low power and easy to use dual channel
op-amp IC. It consists of two internally frequency compensated, high gain,
independent op-amps.

GSM:
The GSM modem can accept any GSM network operator SIM card and act just like a
mobile phone with its own unique phone number. It can receive, send or delete
SMS, phonebook entries or make, receive, reject a voice call.

GPS:
It does not require the user to transmit any data and it operates independently
of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance
the usefulness of the GPS positioning system

Speed
Controller: It consist of the DC motor and transistors SL100 and BC541 to
control the motor. Based on the input from transmitter the speed control of the
motor is achieved.

 

IV.PROPOSED SYSTEM

In
the proposed system, the solution to speed limit problems existing in the
society is provided. Theprototype consists of two sections – transmitter and
receiver. The transmitter is to be fixed on the speed limit boards that are
present on the road side. The receiver section is to be placed on the vehicle.

The
key is provided to enable the presence of speed limit. Here four push buttons
are used as key. Each key act as different speeds. The encoder converts the
parallel data from the key to serial data and given to the RF transmitter. Its
range is 433 MHz and has a coverage area of about 20m.

The
receiver which is placed in the vehicle will not be in ON state all the time.
Only when the vehicle enters the transmitter area then connection is
established. Hence power consumption is less. The indication that the
transmitter and receiver has been connected or disconnected is displayed on the
LCD display that keeps the driver updated.

The
vibration sensor is used to measure the amount of vibration and compared with
the threshold value. If the vibration of the vehicle exceeds the threshold
value then it is assumed that accident has occurred. Then the position of the
vehicle is tracked by GPS system and message is sent to the ambulance
automatically with the help of GSM module. Hence it will be useful for
accidental monitoring of vehicles and safety of people is highly ensured.

The
Arduino Uno is programmed in such a way to control the vehicle speed
automatically. In the block diagram the speed control is shown with the help of
speed controller circuit. It consist of DC motor and transistors SL100 and
BC541 through which speed can be controlled. The principle of PWM is used here.
Each wave has certain duty cycle for its working. So when duty cycle of output
wave is reduced, the speed of the motor is controlled.

In
real time implementation the speed control is achieved by using a fuel injector
in the vehicle. Hence, when the amount of fuel is controlled then vehicle speed
is automatically reduced.

V.CONCLUSION

The
proposed system works accurately in the experimental point of view. It was
tested with various speed limits and speed control is achieved accordingly. The
accidental monitoring is shown with the help of piezoelectric sensor. When it
is tapped the location is tracked by GPS. The GSM then automatically sends message
about the location of accident to the ambulance.

 

VI.REFERENCES

1.
World Health Organization. 1999 World Health Organization – International
Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension.
WHO,1999.

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Khan, Abdul Manan, and AnsaTehreen. “Causes of road accidents in Pakistan.”7Journal of Asian Development Studies 1 (2012).

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Clarke, David D., et al. “Killer crashes fatal road traffic accidents in the
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4.
Zang, Meng, VladislavKecojevic, and Dragon Komljenovic. “Investigation of haul
truck-related fatal accidents in surface mining using fault tree analysis.
“Safety science 65 (2014): 106-117.

5.
SheebaRazzaq, Faisal Riaz, TahirMehmood, NaeemIqbalRatyal “Multi-factors based
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transportation systems, vol.4, no.5, (2016).

6.
Venkatesh, Sekar “Automatic speed control of vehicle in restricted areas using
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Hamshan Khan “Automatic pothole and speed breaker detection using android
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8.
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9.
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