Abstract concluded that reading is an active process

Abstract

            Students’
reading habit in Indonesia is still low. Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) is
created by the government to solve this problem. Reading non-learning book in
15 minutes before the lesson begun is one of activities in this movement.
Observation, interview, students’ response journal, field note, and video recording
were done for data collection to investigate the implementation of GLS in MTsN
8 Kediri to find out students’ negotiation to a text for their reading
comprehension, and to know that the implementation of GLS is beneficial or not for
reading habit of the students. The result of this descriptive qualitative
research shows that MTsN 8 Kediri is in habituation implementation stage of
GLS. The students use both of bottom-up and top-down process to negotiate with
a text for their reading comprehension. This research also proves that the
implementation of GLS is beneficial for reading habit of the students.

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1.      Introduction

Reading  can 
be  defined  as 
perceiving  a  written 
text  in  order 
to  understand its contents
(Richards et al., 2002). According to Klingner
et al (2007), reading is an activity that has an aim. Students may read in order
to get information or improve their knowledge. Sometimes, students also read for their
pleasure. As stated by Nation ( 2009), reading is a source of learning and a
source of enjoyment. Nunan (2003) interprets reading as a fluent process
of readers
which combine information from a text and their own background knowledge to
build meaning. It can be concluded that reading is an active process of readers
for improving the knowledge that has purposes to get information or pleasure by
combining information from a text to their background language to build
meaning.

               Unfortunately, reading habit in Indonesia is still low especially for the students. Data from PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) in 2011, Indonesia’s students ranked 45 from 48 countries and another data from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2012 showed that Indonesia’s students ranks 64 from 65 countries for skill of understanding the reading (Retnaningdyah, et al., 2016). Dewayani and Retnaningdyah (2017) states that Indonesia ranks 60 from 61 countries from the survey of Central of Connecticut State University (CCSU) in 2016 which rate the most literate country in the world.                Therefore, the government take a step for solving this problem. The government creates a program named Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) or School Literacy Movement. Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) is developed based on Permendikbud Number 23 Year 2015 about character development. 15 minutes reading in the beginning, middle or ending of the lesson is one of the activities in GLS. Many schools have been implemented this program. Those schools are: SD Islam Terpadu Lukman Al-Hakim Internasional Yogyakarta, SMPN 5 Bogor, SMAN 11 Jambi, and many other schools (Kemendikbud’s website, 2017).               A school in Kediri has been implemented GLS as well, it is MTsN 8 Kediri as well. The researcher is interested to conduct a research about the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri. Therefore, there are three research questions, as follow: a.       How is the implementation of Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) in MTsN 8 Kediri?b.      How is the students’ negotiation to an English language reading text for their reading comprehension?c.       Is Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) beneficial for reading habit of the students?2.      Theoritical Framework               The government creates Gerakan Literasi Sekolah to increase reading habit for the students in Indonesia. According to Retnaningdyah, et al. (2016), literacy is ability to access, understand, and use things intelligently through various activities, such as reading, seeing, listening, writing, and/or speaking. Pahl and Rowsell (2005) stated that literacy is repertoire of practices that can be formed, it is not an unchanging or universal set of skills. However, literacy also can be defined as social practice and relationship which is related to culture, language, and knowledge (UNESCO, 2003). In conclusion, literacy is social practice and relationship to access, understand, and use things intelligently through reading, seeing, listening, writing, and / or speaking which is related to culture, language, and knowledge.                The government makes GLS to improve students’ reading habit in Indonesia. Retnaningdyah, et al. (2016) state GLS is an effort which is made to make the schools as learning organization to create long-life literate students through public engagement. The types of book which can be read are non-learning books such as novel, short story, magazine, comic, and etc. The classroom reading corner or class library for a collection of reading materials and posters about motivation of how important reading is should be provided.                Actually, the implementation of GLS is an example of literacy practices. Domain of this literacy practice is in the classroom. According to Barton and Hamilton (2000), literacy practices is a great way of conceptualizing the link between the activities of reading and writing and the social structures in which they  are embedded and which they help shape. In this case, the students link their reading and writing activity in their social structure which is the classroom by reading a non-learning book for 15 minutes before the lesson is begun. 15 minutes reading activity in GLS is absolutely related to the students’ reading habit. As the researcher explained before, reading habit for Indonesia’s students is still low. Therefore, the researcher conducted a research to prove that this literacy practices which is the implementation GLS can be beneficial or not for the students’ reading habit               The implementation of GLS is related to written text because the students have to read non-learning book in 15 minutes. Actually, literacy is not only based on written text but it also from various modes which are called multimodal text. Pahl and Rowsell (2010) state multimodality is a concept of communication that consider the written, the visual, the gestural, and the tactile into one entity. The example of multimodal text are story book by using pictures, pop-up books, web pages, web blogs, cartoons, movies, songs, videogames, artwork, and etc. During reading a multimodal text, the students are doing the process of meaning-making. The teachers should bridge the local and global literacy in the process of meaning-making because the students are from different culture and different background. This notion is called multilteracies (Pahl and Rowsell, 2010).                In GLS, there are three implementation stages in GLS, those are: habituation, development, and learning (Retnaningdyah, et al., 2016). Every school should reach some indicators to complete each implementation stages. In GLS the students can bring their non-learning book to the school for their 15 minutes reading before the lesson is begun. The students can bring their own book from home to school. In this case, home-school literacy is happened. If they do not bring from home, they can borrow a book from the school library.                During reading a book, the students try to negotiate with the text to get reading comprehension of that text. This negotiation involves top-down and bottom-up processes in reading (Woolley, 2011). Top-down process is more focus in processing that depends on the readers’ intelligence and experience to understand the text (Brown, 2000). It can be simplified as when the readers use their background knowledge to predict the meaning of a text. At first, the readers have some expectations about what they will read, and they can confirm or reject these as they have read that text. Brown (2000) explains that bottom-up process, the readers have to recognize kinds of linguistic signals, such as: letters, morphemes, syllable, phrases, grammatical cues, discourse markers) to get the real meaning of words in a text. Bottom-up processing happens when the readers try to understand language by looking at individual meanings or grammatical characteristics of the most basic units of the text and moves from these to trying to understand the whole text.               Some researchers have been researched the implementation of GLS in the school. Kurniawan, et al. (2017) conducted a research in SMAN 1 Singaraja. This school has been implemented GLS for two years and it already reached all the three implementation stages which are habituation, development, and learning. The implementation of GLS in SD Kristen Kalam Kudus and SD Muhammadiyah Suronatan has been researched by Endaryanta (2017). The result shows that literacy culture in SD Kristen Kalam Kudus as culture of reading and writing. Yet, SD Muhammadiyah Suronatan is only as culture of reading. Sari and Suharningsih (2017) conducted a research about the relationship between the quality of Gerakan Literasi Sekolah (GLS) with students’ learning independence in SMKN 1 Sidoarjo. The implementation of GLS in this school is in habituation stage. However, this research is more focus on the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri according to the three implementation stages of GLS, how the students negotiate to a reading text for their reading comprehension, and to prove that GLS is beneficial or not for the students’ reading habit. 3.      Methodology3.1  Setting              The focus of this study was investigating the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri. This school is located in Jln. Joyoboyo, Menang, Pagu, Kediri, East Java. Previously, MTsN 8 Kediri was named MTsN Pagu Kediri. Yet, the local government changed the name became MTsN 8 early in this year. The researcher chose this school because it has a lot of achievements in education and also outside education. The most important thing is that MTsN 8 Kediri has been implemented GLS around a year ago. Therefore, the researcher conducted a research to investigate the impelementation of GLS in this school.3.2  Participant                         The researcher chose VIIA class in MTsN 8 Kediri as the participants of this research. This class was chosen based on the recommendation of an English teacher. The students in VIIA class consist of 23 boys and 17 girls. 3.3  Research Design                         The focus of this study was investigating the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri. This research used ethnography approach as the research design. Iphofen (2013), ethnography is a field-based research method employing observation and interviewing to  investigate  social  practices  and  the meanings  behind  social  interaction. The researcher has been done a field-based research in VIIA class that has forty students in MTsN 8 Kediri.3.4  Data Collection              The data collection was completed from observation, students’ response journal, interviewing an English teacher, field note and video recordings. The researcher has been done the observation fourth times in a month. It was started from November 11th until December 2nd, 2017. The important information during observation would be noted in the field note. Every observation in the classroom was recorded by the researcher. The researcher was provided forty fiction stories in English language for the observation to the students in order to know how the students negotiate the text for their reading comprehension. Each fiction story has seven until ten pages that could be done in two observations. It means that the researcher was provided eighty fiction stories for four observations. The researcher interviewed an English teacher and shared students’ response journal after all four observations have been done. 3.5  Data Analysis                                Theory from Retnaningdyah, et al. (2016) was used for analyzing the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri. The way how the students negotiate their reading text for their reading comprehension was analyzed by using theory from Brown (2000) about top-down and bottom-up process. The result of an English teacher’s interview and the result of students’ response journal was analyzed descriptively and it is used as the evidence that GLS is beneficial or not for reading habit for the students.                4        Result and Discussion               MTsN 8 Kediri has been implemented GLS around a year ago. This school implements GLS by doing 15 minutes reading activity before the lesson begun. The students can bring their own non-learning book in the school so the parents can support them. It means that home-school literacy is happened here. The students are allowed to borrow the non-learning books from the school library for 15 minutes reading activity. Based on the result of interviewing an English teacher, he says that most of all the school members included the principal, the staffs, the teachers, and the students have been implemented 15 minutes reading activity.                Retnaningdyah, et al. (2016) explain there are three implementation stages in GLS, habituation, development, and stages. After observing for four times, this school is actually in habituation stage of implementing GLS. In habituation stage, there are ten indicators. However, this school completes nine all the indicators. An indicator that is not completed yet is daily journal of reading of the students. The students do not have the daily journal of reading yet. They just read without writing it in their journal. Actually, this school does not completed fifth indicator yet because there is no class library and comfortable reading area filled with non-learning book but it has school library with a lot of collections of learning and non-learning books.Table 1Ten indicators in habituation stage

No
Indicators
Not yet
Done

1.
There is 15 minutes reading activity (read silently and read aloud) that is done every day (in the beginning, middle or ending of the lesson)
  
 ?

2.
15 minutes reading activity have been run at least 1 semester
 
?

3.
The students have daily journal of reading
?
 

4.
The teachers, the principal, and/or other staffs as a model in 15 minutes reading activity by reading a book as well during this activity is running.
 
?

5.
There is school library, class library, and comfortable reading area filled with non-learning book.
 
?

6
There are posters reading campaign in every area in the school
 
?

7.
There are text materials which is displayed in every class
 
?

8.
There are posters about clean, healthy, and beautiful living habits in school garden, canteen, school health unit;
 
?

9.
The school have to involve public (parents, alumni, other communities) to develop school literacy activities;
 
?

10.
The principal, the staffs, the teachers, and the students are committed to implement and support GLS.
 
?

                 In the previous research from Kurniawan, et al. (2017), Sari and Suharningsih (2017), and this research conducted a research about the implementation of GLS in a school. SMAN 1 Singaraja has been reached all the three implementation stages which are habituation, development, and learning (Kurniawan, et al., 2017). SMKN 1 Sidoarjo which was researched by Sari and Suharningsih (2017) and MTsN 8 Kediri which was research by the researcher are in habituation stage. Endaryanta (2017) also conducted a research about the implementation of GLS in SD Kristen Kalam Kudus and SD Muhammadiyah Suronatan but he is more focus on literacy culture.               Actually, the students are rarely to read non-learning book in English language. Therefore, the researcher was provided a multimodal text in form of picture short story in English language. So, the students can read a written text and also see a picture in that short story. To bridge their local and global literacy, the researcher choose picture short story by using full English but it is still related to their identity. The researcher decided to provide the stories because she wanted to know how the students negotiate with an English language text for their reading comprehension. The researcher divided the negotiation of the students for their reading comprehension into four parts.               In the first observation, the researcher gave a fiction picture short story for every student. The students read silently actually. At first, they confused of what is the story about because they rarely to read an English language story. They thought that it was very difficult. They just opened the short story back and forth because they did not know yet about the story. Then, they try to open their dictionary. They found the meaning of every word from their own dictionary. Even the phrase “once upon a time”, they would find the meaning of that phrase by searching the meaning of every word. As the result, they got wrong meaning of that phrase. Fortunately, after 15 minutes reading activity has been done, the teacher always discuss their reading to make them more understand and clarify the wrong meaning. It can be seen from this explanation, that the students use bottom-up process to negotiate with a text for their reading comprehension because they tried to find the meaning of the story by finding the meaning of every word.

                In
the second observation, they continued to read the previous fiction short
story. The teacher asked a student to read aloud their fiction story in front
of the classroom. They did not feel confuse again like in the first
observation. The students try to enjoy their reading even still find some difficulties.
They could understand a little bit about their short story that they have been
read because they read the previous part before. Yet, they still try to
understand the story by finding every word. It means that they still used
bottom-up process in the second observation. Actually, every student has
different way to understand the story. Some students wrote only the difficult
words their own book to get the meaning of the story. However, some students
translate all the short story in their book to understand it.

            In
the third observation, the students got new fiction picture short story still
in English language. The teacher asked the students to read silently. The
student really enjoyed their reading. They did not feel confuse again. At
first, they could guess what the story about from their background knowledge.
After reading some parts of it, they could confirm that their guess was true or
not. They guessed in the beginning but they still find the meaning of every
word to understand the story. The difference between this observation and the
two previous observations was the students could get the meaning of every word
easier. Probably, they already enjoyed their reading and they have been
understood a lot of vocabularies from their reading activity before. In this
observation, the students used top-down process when they predict what the
story about and they could confirm that their prediction was correct or not
after they were reading it. Bottom-up also used by the students in this
observation because they could understand the short story after they find the
meaning of every word.

            In
the last observation, two of the students were asked to read aloud their story
in front of the classroom. The students negotiate with a text for their reading
comprehension by using top-up process and bottom-up process as well. Yet, they
could be easier to understand the short story because have known some parts of
story before in the previous reading activity. They just confirmed that their
prediction was right or not after they have done reading their fiction short
story. They tried to find the meaning of difficult words in their dictionary to
get the meaning of the fiction short story.

Then, is GLS beneficial
for reading habit for the students? The answer is yes. This answer is gotten
from the result from interview with the teacher and students’ response journal.
As we all know that reading habit of Indonesia’s students is still low. Firstly,
in the beginning of the implementation of GLS in this school around a year ago,
most of the students have low reading habit. After the teacher implements GLS,
the students start to enjoy reading now. The teacher and the students agree
that GLS is beneficial for reading habit of the students. As the analogy, it
can be shown from their negotiation to an English language text for their
reading comprehension. Because they are rarely to read it, they do not have
motivation and find the difficulties to read it at first. But, the teacher and
the researcher always help them in four observations. At the end of the
observation, they can enjoy to read an English text because they have to read
it for four times previously in 15 minutes before the lesson begun. It means
that implementing GLS is beneficial as well for creating a habit to read an
English text.     

5       
Conclusion

            This research is focus
on the implementation of GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri. From the four observations in
MTsN 8 Kediri, it can be concluded that this school is in habituation stage of
implementation of GLS. In 15 minutes reading before the lesson begun, the
students use bottom-up process in the first and the second of observation and
they use both top-down process and bottom-up process in the third and last
observation to negotiate a text for their reading comprehension. The result
from interview with an English teacher and students’ response journal can be
concluded that implementation of GLS can be beneficial for reading habit of the
students. The future researchers can investigate what are the supporting
factors and obstacle factors for implementing GLS in MTsN 8 Kediri.