ABSTRACT one involving the use of litmus

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen ion
concentration is an experiment that articulates the concentration of hydrogen
ions in aqueous solution. The experiment contains two methods, one involving
the use of litmus paper (colorimetric) and the other an electric pH-meter
(Electrometric). The test determines the acidity or alkalinity of the mud
sample and also the conductivity.

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Table of Contents
ABSTRACT………………………………………………… 3
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………….. 4
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS……………………………………. 5
SAMPLES USED DURING THE EXPERIMENT…………………………. 5
PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENT 1…………………………….. 6
PROCEDURE FOR EXPERIMENT 2………………………………… 6
RESULTS…………………………………………………. 7
PRECAUTION………………………………………………. 7
MAINTAINANCE…………………………………………….. 8
DISCUSSIONS……………………………………………… 8
CONCLUSION………………………………………………. 9
REFERENCE………………………………………………. 10
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The term pH is one used in articulating the concentration of
hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. pH is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the
hydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per litre. The pH is tested in two
ranges: acidic (Below 7) and alkaline (Above 7). It is also determined by two
methods which are: colorimetric and electrometric method.

1.    
Colorimetric method: Here, the pH paper is saturated with dyes
that exhibit different colors when exposed to solutions of fluctuating pH. If
the salt concentration is too high it may cause the general estimate of the dye
to be unreliable.

 

2.    
Electrometric method: This is an instrument that decides the
pH of a aqueous solution by estimating the  electro potential generated between a special
glass electrode and a reference electrode. The meter has a range of 0 to 14 pH
unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

1.     Mixing cup and mixer

2.     Measuring cylinder

3.     Weighing balance

4.     pH meter

5.     Litmus paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLES USED DURING THE EXPERIMENT

25g of
bentonite

350ml of
water

4g of
potassium chloride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEDURE FOR THE EXPERIMENT 1

1.     I measured 350ml of water with the
measuring cylinder.

2.     Using a weighing balance, I measured
25g of bentonite.

3.     I mixed water and bentonite into the
mixing cup and mixed with the mixer until there were no lumps.

4.     I tore off and placed a short strip
of PH paper on the surface of the sample.

5.     After the color of the paper soothed,
I reported the value of the pH using the standard chart.

6.     Using the pH-meter, I turned it on with
the ON/OFF key.

7.     I pushed the pH/mv key until the
annunciators indicated the desired mode.

8.     I rinsed the probe with distilled
water and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to stabilize.

9.     Then, I took my readings.

 

           

 PROCEDURE
FOR EXPERIMENT 2

1.     I measured 350ml of water with the
measuring tube.

2.     Using a weighing balance, I measured
25g of bentonite.

3.     I measured 4g of potassium chloride

4.     I turned water; potassium chloride
and bentonite into the mixing cup and mixed with the mixer until there were no
lumps.

5.     I tore off and placed a short strip
of PH paper on the surface of the sample.

6.     After the color of the paper soothed,
I reported the value of the pH using the standard chart.

7.     Using the pH-meter, I turned it on with
the ON/OFF key.

8.     I pushed the pH/mv key until the
annunciators indicated the desired mode.

9.     I rinsed the probe with distilled
water and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to stabilize.

10.  Then, I took my readings.

 

RESULTS

 

RESULTS FOR
SAMPLE 1

Colorimeter

Electrometer

Temp. With meter

Range

8.5

8.41

24.9ºC

113.7mV

RESULTS FOR
SAMPLE 2 (WITH POTASSIUM CHLORIDE)

 

Colorimeter

Electrometer

Temp. With meter

Range

7.5

8.23

25.7ºC

-57.2mV

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRECAUTION

1.     I made sure I did not stick the pH paper
into the fluid sample.

2.     I ensured that the probe was not dry.

3.     I made sure the chloride
concentration wasn’t greater than about 10,000mg/l

4.     I made sure I didn’t use distilled
water or deionized water for storing under any circumstances.

 

 

 

 

MAINTAINANCE

1)     Never
let the probe tip become dry. The glass bulb of the probe should always be kept
moist for fast response. A rubber cap is supplied with the probe to cover the
glass bulb with the solution. Remove the cap to use the electrode.

2)     If
the tip of the probe is dry and the cap has been left off, dip the probe in
potassium chloride solution for 30 minutes or soak the tip water for a period
of 2 hours.

3)     When
the electrode is not in use, replace the cap which should be filled with KCL or
equivalent storage solution.

4)     Do
not use distilled or deionized water for storing under any circumtances.

5)     If
KCL or equivalent storage is not available, use a 4.00 pH buffer, 7.00 pH
buffer or tap water.

 

 

 

DISCUSSIONS

The value of the pH is one that depicts the hydrogen ion
concentration in the fluid.it also displays the degree of alkalinity and
acidity of the drilling mud.

Determinations of the pH value are important in Petroleum
drilling muds because it distresses the contaminant removal, solubility of
organic thinners, corrosion mitigation and dispersion of clays present in the
mud.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Taking everything into account, determining
the acidity or alkalinity of a mud test is fundamental as it not being known
can cause a couple of issues down hole and even to the drilling equipment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

Department of Petroleum Engineering, Drilling mud manual,
Engr. Seteyeobot Ifeanyi