A environment stimulus will elicit the required response

A large
amount of learning is a result of consumers thinking and problem-solving
abilities. When an individual is faces with a problem, they can sometimes see a
solution instantly. We, as individuals are likely to look for more information
based on which we can take decisions in line to our requirements or purposes.
This learning that is based on mental learning is called as “cognitive
learning”.

Cognitive
learning theory states that human beings most important learning is their own
problem-solving skills. It makes individuals feel that they have some control
over the external environment. Usually learning theories put emphasis on
external factors for explaining customer decision making and ignore the
internal psychological processes such as motivation, thinking and perception.
The assumption is that external environment stimulus will elicit the required
response from the individual which is not the case always. Many consumer
researchers have actually disagreed to the simplified explanation that
behavioural learning theories present and want to know more about the complex
decision-making process that happens due to consumers internal psychological
factors. Hence, they want to know how its stored retained and retrieved.
This is focused on understanding how the information in human
memory and how it is retrieved. Information processing deals with both the
things: – the complexity of the information that is to be processed by the
consumers and the consumers ability of cognition. A consumer processes the
product on different parameters based on the information available to them.
Information processing is majorly altered by the consumers ability to form
mental picture. The more vivid a consumer’s ability to form an image the more
are that consumers chances of recalling something. It is the consumers ability
to evoke clear images that increases their cognitive power.

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The most important thing to understand in information
processing is how the information is stored in the memory, how it is retained
there and how it is retrieved from memory upon call.

·        
Sensory Store: – It is the temporary storage space for
our memory

We
obtain all our information from our senses, but senses all get one fragment of
the information that is available (nose will tell the smell, and skin will tell
the feel) this sensory information will get transferred to the brain where
brain will collate all of this information together to form one single
instance. This instance needs to be processed immediately or there are high chances
of loss.

 

·        
Working memory/ knowing memory: –

It is the temporary storage of memory where
information is actually processed. The information or the instance that is
transferred from the sensory memory is actually processed here. if there is
silent information repetition in 2-10 seconds then it is transferred to the
long-term memory, which takes about 30 seconds, else it gets lost.

 

·        
Long term memory:

The information that reaches this stage can stay the
memory for days or weeks or even months depending on the amount of repletion
that is done for that chunk of memory.it is also possible to forget an instance
in a few minutes after it reached the long-term memory.

 

·        
Retention:

The information in long term memory doesn’t wait for
retrieval rather the information is regularly organized and re-organized based
on the links that are formed between sets of information. Consumers interpret
new information in the same format that the original information is stored.
Consumers are faced with huge amounts of data everyday and thus they may
sometimes need to recode what they have already once encoded so as to include
larger amounts of data.

 

·        
Retrieval: –

It is the process of accessing the desired part or
section of information in the long-term storage. Consumers remember the
benefits of a product rather than its attributes and hence the advertisements
should be based on benefits and not on attributes.

 

·        
Interference: –

Interference is when old information in long term
memory clashes with new information that is being presented to the consumer.
This will lead to low recall for that particular brand as there is interference
in new and old learnings.

 

·        
Extensive information Processing: –

A consumer passes through a long and complicated
series mental and behavioural stages of data processing in order to come to a
purchase decision. Hence the process that is followed for complex decision
making is awareness to interest to evaluation of options to behaviour or
purchase of product to final evaluation i.e. adoption or rejection of that
product.