A show some indication that they have some

A critical review of a
research paper

critical review will review the research paper, progressive resistance exercise in women with
osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial by Jorge, R.T.B et al
(2015). This critical review will explore the strengths and weaknesses of each
section of the research paper to determine whether this paper shows good or
poor practice and if it is suitable for academic references.

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this research paper, the abstract was a succinct summary of the contents of the
article and explains the purpose of the research paper which is ideal and was
suggested by Parahoo (2006) who indicated that this section of the paper should
be stipulated by the journal itself. The abstract also included the objective,
methodology, results, and conclusion which indicates that this abstract is
succinct and provides enough information to be useful for the reader showing
this as being good practice (Conkin Dale, 2005).   


researchers/authors that wrote this research paper show some indication that
they have some sort of insight in this field. The author, Renata Trajano Borges
Jorge, has shown to have some knowledge in this field due to his past studies
have been credible. The author has a wealth of publications relating to this
topic such as body dysmorphic disorders, which indicates standing in the field.
However, the author Marcelo Cardoso de Souza who co-wrote this research paper
has shown less knowledge in this field due to his past studies being about
ovarian hyperstimulation cycles and chronic stroke patients. This indicates
that his main set of research is not about the osteoarthritis of the knee but
is still in the field of anatomy which benefits the research paper.


first subject written about in the introduction is commonly the problem of the
study (Bassett and Bassett, 2003). The introduction in the research paper
showed very good practice because it gave the reader a firm sense of what the
study was researching, it stated the purpose and rationale of the research and
helped develop the background for the study such as “The vast majority of
individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee (80%) experience pain and limited
mobility, and 25% cannot perform major activities of daily living” (Jorge,
R.T.B et al, 2015).



Literature review

literature review of a research paper is present to help the research paper develop
the research question whilst recognising the appropriate way to help data collection
(Wilmaten Ham-Baloyi, 2016). In addition, the literature review demonstrates an
appropriate amount of insight into the specific field/topic in question showing
that the knowledge is up to date. Furthermore, a literature review should
include studies that have been published recently, ideally within the last 5-10
years. However, there are some exceptions to this, for example where there is a
lack of research or a study that is still relevant and shows good practice
should still be used. In addition, the type/source of literature needs to be taken
into consideration. For example, primary empirical data from the original source
is more desired than data from a secondary source.  Because this research paper does not have a
literature review, it displays this paper as poor practice. The lack of a
literature review indicates that the authors didn’t demonstrate an appropriate
understanding of the field because they didn’t read any studies in this field.


amount at which the sample reflects the population it was taken from is known as
representativeness and in quantitative research, this is an important aspect in
determining the suitability of a study (Polit and Beck, 2006). The sample size
is also important when looking at quantitative research as small samples are at
risk of being overly representative of small subgroups within the population.
For example, if in the general sample of women, it was noticed that 69% were
Caucasian, then this would mean that this race would be over presented in the
sample, thereby creating a sampling error. This risk of a sampling error
decreases when the sample size increases, therefore this research paper should have
used a bigger sample than 60 participants that were chosen.


the methodology, there are several important elements that need to be conducted
to produce a good research paper. The way the data was collected is important
because in a quantitative study there are many different ways of collecting data
such as interview, questionnaire, attitude scale and observational tools. This
research paper included a pain scale, observational tools, surveys and an
interview which indicates that this study can provide contextual information
needed to frame an evaluation. Also using several methods could give the author
an insight into an issue that was caused, and this might require further
exploration using other methods that weren’t previously used (Cohen, L et al, 2000).

next part of the methodology would need to have some details about the
participants. This research paper clearly states the patient’s characteristics
such as gender, age, race, year of education, paid work, body mass index (BMI),
and a radiographic grading. Since the study has given these specific
characteristics, it indicates that the participants represented the research
well. The selection process in this research paper was showed good practice
because they were selected by telephone using a database of patients with
osteoarthritis from the Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Subsequently,
this study showed good practice because it confirmed that the process of
obtaining ethical clearance was made and kept, the direct quote is “This study received
approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal
de Sao Paulo (Brazil)” (Jorge, R.T.B et al, 2015). Also, this study used sealed
envelopes to ensure that the client’s confidentiality was good during the selection
process and the splitting of groups into experimental and control, this also
indicates good practice because of the professionalism and respectable behaviour.

research approach of the study was clear and rationale because most of the
information gathered from data collection (conversation/interview/pain scale)
was ideal for the participants they chose. To elaborate, the way they collected
the data was ideal for the participants due to them being of a certain age and
have these disorders, the study took these aspects into consideration and put
the participant’s health ahead of anything, demonstrating good practice. The
main piece of equipment used was the weights machine which was used y all the
participants. The machine that they used was good because it measured the
concept being studied in an unwavering and consistent manner.   In
general, “validity is described as the ability of the instrument to measure
what it is supposed to measure and reliability the instrument’s ability to
consistently and accurately measure the concept under study” (Kanis. H, 2014).
The instrument/equipment that they used is clear and unambiguous, this ensures
that the proposed study has been conceptually well planned to show that this is
good practice for this study. On the other hand, the equipment used was
identified briefly but was not described (function) enough and the study did
not mention how the piece of equipment was obtained or if it had been donated
by a commercial source demonstrating poor practice. 


the results section, the statistical test used was found to be suitable and
appropriate for the design. For example, the t-test was used so that the
researchers can obtain two sets of results for both experimental and control
group. Also, this section demonstrated another sign of poor practice because
not all the information is included in the tables, for example, the diclofenac
which is one of the pain relief medications stated in the method section is not
recorded in the tables. This shows poor practice and lack of detail which would
affect the research paper quality. Equally important, is the readers
understanding of the progressive resistance exercise (PRE). The reader would
struggle to understand these exercises because there are no diagrams of illustrations
used to help explain the PRE. Whereas the journal ‘Progressive Resistance
Exercise with Eccentric Loading for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis’ by Hernandez,
Haniel J, et al (2015) shows diagrams of knee flexion and extension when
eccentric loading which provides the reader with a greater understanding of how
to conduct these techniques.  


discussion section should flow logically from the results section which it does
in this study showing good practice, it also should have related back to the
literature review thus placing the study into context, but this study did not
create a literature review demonstrating poor practice. The significance of the
findings was stated, and this study showed good practice by stating its
strengths and limitations for example, “The present study has strengths that
merit consideration. A supervised exercise program was used with a gradual
increase in load and the inclusion of hip muscle strengthening for the
treatment of subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. Moreover, the subjects
underwent an intermediate assessment during the study, which allowed for the
identification of precisely when the change began occurring. These features
appear only rarely in other studies” (Jorge, R.T.B et al, 2015). This quote
from the study also indicates that the research paper compared itself to other
journals/papers to see where they lacked and where they excelled. Another
essential point is that, the results have been used to support and refute other
studies for example the article reads “In a systematic review of resistance
exercises for individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee, 56% of the studies
evaluated, found statistically significant improvements in pain, but most of
the studies did not use a progressive increase in load and none incorporated
any hip muscle strengthening exercise” (Jorge, R.T.B et al, 2015).


study didn’t have a section for the conclusion but in fact, it was integrated
into the discussion, meaning that there was no specific heading for it.
However, the conclusion itself showed very good practice because it exhibited
some fresh insight  such as the time of
the initial diagnosis was not included; the medication use before the study
start was not recorded; only women participated what makes impossible to
extrapolate the results to other genders; the control group did not undergo any
type of intervention and no follow-up was carried out to determine the
long-term impact of progressive resistance exercise in patients with
osteoarthritis of the knee.


reference list should conclude the study with a full list of the reports, journals,
articles, and books used and were referred to in this study (Connelly, Lynne M,
2016). This reference list in this specific study showed good practice because
all the sources were clearly cited, and they were all set out alphabetically
and were in full bibliographic detail. The references used were from a wide
range of works in the field means that the authors were well

conclusion, after the comprehensive review of each stage of the research paper,
there are many strengths and some weaknesses of this research paper. But
overall, I believe that this paper can be used by researchers as a reference
when talking about osteoarthritis of the knee in females.        



























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