A students and workers are at risk

A
central issue that has been going on for more than just decades now is the
change in climate. But first, what is climate change? According to the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, climate change is a change in the
typical or average weather of a region or city. This could be a change in how
much rain a place usually gets in a year, or a change in a place’s usual
temperature for a month. People often confuse climate with weather. NASA stated
that weather is the short-term changes we see in temperature, clouds,
precipitation, humidity, and wind in a region or city. This can change every
day, and sometimes within the same day.

A
large number of people are affected by the change in climate, with one of the
primary victims being students and workers. This is mostly because a lot of
them don’t use any mode of transportation other than walking or riding a
bicycle.  According to the National
Center for Safe Routes to School (2013), walking to and from school increased
significantly between 2007 and 2012, from 12.4% to 15.7% in the morning; and
from 15.8% to 19.7% in the afternoon. Lake (2015) observed that a fair number
of workers walk to get to work, which is right around four million people.
Whether students walk or commute going to school, they are still greatly
affected by the change in climate.

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Walking
and riding a bicycle being the only modes of transportation for students and
workers, they are usually caught in some number of minutes of rain, and
sometimes even rainstorms. Since they are caught in the rain, everything they
carry around with them ends up wet, and sometimes even if they are using an
umbrella. Even those who commute are affected by the rain. In October of 2016,
a news article reported that several accidents occurred in Pittsburgh during a
Thursday morning commute due to the heavy rain. This shows that even though
commuters are inside a vehicle, they can still be affected by rain and
sometimes in worse ways than someone who is walking or riding a bike to get to
their destination.

Students and workers who walk or ride
bicycles to their destinations are not only at risk of a number of negative
outcomes, they are also likely to be great affected by the weather such as
rainstorms. According to climatemps.com, Manila, Luzon is provided with an
average of 2061 mm (81.1 inches) of rain fall per year. On average, there are
144 days per year, or 12 days per month, with more than 0.1 mm of rainfall.
Data show that it rains frequently in the Philippines, which adds more to the
problem in which students and workers are at risk of being greatly affected by
the rain while walking to their destination. To reach their destination without
getting wet much from the rain, they are required to use certain items to
protect themselves.

Usually, students and workers who walk or
ride bicycles make use of umbrellas, jackets, or raincoats when on the way to
their destination while it is raining. However, using only these items don’t
always cover all their needs, especially when it is raining. The problem with
using an umbrella is that there are times where the umbrella is not big enough
to protect both you and your luggage from the weather. It’s either, you are
protected, your bag is protected, or only a part of you and your bag are
protected. On the other hand, the problem with only using a jacket or a
raincoat is that while you are almost fully protected from the weather, the
items you carry are not, since a raincoat is only big enough to protect are
single person.

There is a need to create some way to fully
protect both the person and the bag that the person carries, without having to
sacrifice something for the other. To do this, researchers thought of an
accessory that could be attached to any bag and can protect a person and
his/her items as if they were just wearing a raincoat. This accessory provides
the person with a raincoat that can be folded and attached to the back of a
bag, which can then be unfolded so that the person is able to wear the raincoat
when needed. This also comes with a raincoat for the bag as well. In order for
the researchers to do this, they must use the finest but cheapest possible
materials in the creation of this accessory, and not just any mediocre
material.

Numerous
studies have been found regarding the number of children and students that walk
to and from school. Some of these studies show that the number has increased
within the past few years. According to the National Center for Safe Routes to
School (2013), this number increased between 2007 and 2012, from 12.4% to 15.7%
in the morning, and from 15.8% to 19.7% in the afternoon. The National Center
for Safe Routes to School (2011) also stated that 48% of children ranging from
5 to 14 years usually walked or bicycled to school in 1969. In relation, Lake
(2015) claimed that around four million workers walked to get to work. From his
data, it can be observed that a fair number of people walk or ride a bike in
order to get to their destinations.

Despite
several studies showing an increase in the number of people who walk to and
from their destinations, other studies claim the opposite. The Pedestrian and
Bike Information Center (n.d.) claims that the decline in walking and bicycling
to destinations is seen, in whatever perspective you view it. Although the
National Center for Safe Routes to School (2011) stated that 48% of children
usually walked or bicycled to school in 1969, this was shown to have decreased,
as only 13% of children within the same age range are found to usually walk or
ride a bicycle to school in 2009. In addition to this, Kalinowsky and Rushowy
(2016) claimed that the number of 11-to-17-year-olds who walked or rode a bike
to school decreased by 12.9% while the number of people who rode a car
increased from 14% to 33% in between 1986 and 2011. Ham, Martin, and Kohl
(2008) also stated that the number of students who walked or biked went from
42% to 16.2%. These studies contradict the previous students that were
mentioned, as they show that there was a decline in the number of people who
walked or bicycled.

The
people who walk or bike to their destinations are often affected by the
weather, such as rainstorms. In order to protect themselves, they must use an
umbrella, or a raincoat for full- body protection. Each raincoat is usually
made with different materials. Some of these raincoats have good build quality
while others don’t. In order for a raincoat to have a good build quality, it
must be made out of certain materials. Unfortunately, these materials are
either hard to find, very expensive, or both. But nevertheless, they are
usually worth it considering the durability of the output.

Several
researchers have studied on different materials and have determined which
materials would create a highly durable raincoat. According to Herald (2017),
there are three basic types of children’s raincoats in the market. These
raincoats are made of either water-repellant material, coated in vinyl, or made
entirely from vinyl. Herald (2017) also claimed that if one wants a raincoat
that is effective in protection against the rain, raincoats coated in vinyl and
made of fabric would be best. This type of raincoat is usually made of tightly
woven fabric, which is usually nylon, polyester, or rayon). Toronto (2009)
stated that there are certain materials that make new coats have an impermeable
quality. These materials include cotton, polyester, and even silk fabrics
backed with polyurethane and sometimes threads wound with rubber.

While
there are raincoats that are made out of the best materials available, there
are also raincoats that aren’t. One cannot just buy any kind of raincoat. One
must make sure that the raincoat is made up of the best possible materials with
consideration of the price of the product. For some reason however, there are
some people who are not aware of what certain materials’ effects are, whether
it be to the user or to the raincoat itself.

There
are a few materials out there that must not be used to make a raincoat. Webster
(2015) emphasized that there must be greater examination as well as national
and international controls when it comes to what materials are used in order to
create certain products such as raincoats. This pushes people to avoid products
containing PFAS’s which are used to create various products such as raincoats
and furniture. Targeted News Service (2013) then stated that materials can have
certain chemicals that can permanently disrupt the brain. According to them,
70% of the raingear that they tested contained high levels of cadmian. Cadmian,
according to Merriam Webster dictionary, is a toxic bluish-white malleable
ductile divalent metallic element used in batteries, pigments, and protective
platings.

 Despite several studies claiming that
raincoats coated in or made of vinyl are usually the best in terms of quality,
other studies have shown that vinyl has a number of harmful effects. According
to Vancouver (1992), vinyl garments are notoriously feeble, which makes them
prone to creasing. They usually rip easily and deteriorate when dry-cleaned.
Escandon (2013) emphasized that vinyl is uniquely toxic due to the highly toxic
ingredients in it which affects the environment during its production, use, and
disposal. She also stated that vinyl is 57% chlorine, which is a toxic
substance that generates a huge amount of pollution.

From
the sources above, one can observe that they mostly focused on the number of
people who walk to and from their destination in general. They also focused on
which materials can and cannot be used to create raincoats. The focus of this
study and product is on the number of people who walk to and from their
destination, who also carry bags with them. As one may know, the Philippines
usually has unexpected rainfall from time to time. With the product created
from this study, people will be able to safely walk under the rain without
their items getting wet, and without having to sacrifice their bags’ space just
to carry protection against the rain.

While
there are studies that point out which materials must and must not be used in
order to create an attachable raincoat with good quality, there is still a
certain question that can be brought up. This question would be; would the
raincoat be feasible and practical enough to warrant its use? Because of this,
additional studies and research must be made and done in order to assure the
researchers that the product will succeed.

The
purpose of this paper is to study about different raw materials that can be
used in the production of a raincoat. 
The researchers aim to find the best and most ideal materials that could
possibly used to create a raincoat that can be attached to any kind of
backpack. The raincoat will be attachable with the help of Velcro straps, which
can then be used by people who usually walk to get to their destinations during
rainy seasons.

This
research studies about the best possible materials that can be used to create
raincoats. These raincoats can be attached to any kind of backpack, which means
the user can wear his or her backpack over the raincoat, while also protecting
the backpack itself.  This raincoat will be
attachable with the use of Velcro straps for easy access and comfortability.
This attachable raincoat can be used by any person, especially those who
usually walk to get to their destinations, and most especially those who walk
during rainy seasons.