The initial foundation of 3G can be traced back to 1970s when Luigi Galvani investigated the nature and effects of electrophysiology, and began experiments with muscular stimulation by electrical means.
The Analog Cellular Age (1G, i.e. 1st Generation) began with the opening of the first commercial mobile phone network for business in Tokyo in 1979. Mobile phones began to proliferate through the 1980s with the introduction of “cellular” phones based on cellular networks with multiple base stations located relatively close to each other, and protocols for the automated “handover” between two cells when a phone moved from one cell to the other. At this time analog transmission was in use in all systems. Motorola introduced the first truly portable, hand-held phone. These systems (NIT, AMPS, SACS, RT MI, C-Net, and Radio com 2000) later became known as (1G) mobile phones.
A transformation occurred on 1 July 1991 when the first GSM network Radiolinja officially opened in Finland which marked the beginning of the Digital Cellular Age (2G). 2G phone systems were characterized by digital circuit switched transmission and the introduction of advanced and fast phone of network signaling. Coinciding with the introduction of 2G systems was a trend away from the larger “bricked” phones toward tiny 100-200g hand-held devices, which soon became the norm. This change was possible through technological improvements such as more advanced batteries and more energy-efficiently electronics, but also was largely related to the higher density of cellular sites caused by increasing usage levels which decreased the demand for high transmit powers to reach distant towers for customers to be satisfied.
The second generation introduced a new variant to communication, as SMS text messaging became possible, initially on GSM networks and eventually on all digital networks. The first person-to-person SMS text message was sent in Finland in 1993. 2G also introduced the ability to consume media content on mobile phones, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) in Finland introduced the downloadable ringing tone as paid content. Finland was also the first country where advertising appeared on the mobile phone when a free daily news heading service on SMS text messaging was launched in 2000, sponsored by advertising.
1. Video calls and broadband wireless data (speed up to 2 Mbps) all in a mobile environment.
2. Helps in achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency, i.e. more amount of information can be transmitted over a given bandwidth.
3. Makes online gaming a real pleasure.
4. Is boon for faster online video streaming on mobile phones?
With 3G, the next-gen mobile service, handset becomes an all-purpose device, as it enables the consumer to:
– The users can browse net. Send, receive large emails including graphics. Download movies;
– Make video calls and videoconference (possible on 3G to 3G calls);
– Get streaming TV on phone screen with pause, record features. Live streaming TV will soon be a possibility;
– The top speed will increase to 2 mob/sec. compared to earlier 10 kb/sec. in 2G;
– Time taken to download a 3-min MP3 song would come down to 11 sec. to 1.5 min. compared to 2G’s 31-40 minutes.
– Remote access footage from CCTV (could also help police and in traffic management);
– Play interactive games on net sites, access bank accounts, shop online.
For data and communication services to grow to broadband speeds, there will now be two parallel and separate paths available. The cellular route will see gradual upgrade for 2G or 2.5G to 3G, wireless. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) will see Wi-Fi, upgrade to IMAX. 3G and IMAX will confront each other in the mobile arena, because both are mobile compatible. Will they compete with or complement each other?
WiMax can theoretically offer much higher speeds-up to 70 MBPS-or long ranges in wireless, 50 kms-but not both at the same time. In other words, if you want range, you will sharply degrade the speed or vice versa. WiMax has a lower operational cost in the long run and ability to seamlessly integrate wired and mobile networks.
But WiMax will not have the advantages of the first mover in the battle to capture broadband hearts and minds. The 3G technology is here to stay, irrespective to WiMax or no WiMax.
The launch of 3G in India in December 2008 has brought an unprecedented opportunity to harness it for the masses by exploiting its superior connectivity to enable millions in the rural areas, who have no landline networks, to get their first experience of internet or on a mobile handset. It is truly a technological revolution and will transfer Indian society in the years to come.