1.    
Need for
Cognition (NC) is a theoretical construct that was introduced as a
dispositional drive to seek out intellectual challenge. It is presumed to
indicate stable individual differences in the basic motivation to participate
in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors such as those involved in abstract
thinking and problem solving. The goal of the research article was to explore whether
the meaning of Need for Cognition (NC) was the same at different periods of
adulthood and to investigate the meaning of NC across ages. To understand the
meaning of NC across ages, the article explored both the internal and external
relations. With respect to internal relations, it is not known whether the
dimensionality of the NC scale is similar at various periods of adulthood.  Internal relations were considered with
measures of reliability, examination of factor invariance and test retest
coefficients across three age groups. 
With respect to external relations, correlations of NC with other
measures were examined to determine whether the pattern of correlates differed
as a function of age. External relations were investigated by examining
relations of NC with cognitive abilities, personality traits, engagement in
activities, self-rate cognition and negative affect. The research article was
specifically interested in evidence of differential relations at different ages
in the form of interactions of age with external variables in the prediction of
NC. Cognitive test were used to evaluate inductive reasoning with tests of
reasoning and spatial visualization, vocabulary, Episodic memory with verbal
memory tests and Perceptual Speed with substitution and comparison tests.

Participants reported the number of hours spent doing an activity using the
Activity Inventory. Personality Inventory were completed by participants as well
to estimate the five personality traits. Cognitive complaints were assessed and
specific memory problems were computed from the MFQ. 

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