2.0 Building A Roof Area Measure 3.2 Photovoltaic

2.0 Photovoltaic System Design

 This section introduces all parts of photovoltaic system. Photovoltaic system is composed of solar panel, battery, inverter, charge controller, and cabling(Balfour,Shaw,& Nash 2013). Solar panel receives solar energy from sunlight. Battery can be used to store electrical energy. Inverter changes electrical energy current type. Direct current is changed to alternative current before being stored in battery (Balfour, Shaw,& Nash 2013).The charge controllers prevent batteries discharging too deeply(Balfour,Shaw,&Nash 2013). All photovoltaic system material will be discussed in the report, and the selection of the  model is based on the standard power output of photovoltaic system. 

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 2.1 Solar Panel 
   2.1.1 Solar Panel Material Analysis
   2.1.2 Photovoltaic Cell Model Selection 
   2.1.3 Frame Kit Model Selection 
 2.2 Battery
    2.2.1 Battery Material Analysis
    2.2.2 Battery Model Selection
  2.3 Inverter
     2.3.1 Inverter Material Analysis
     2.3.2 Inverter Model Selection  
  2.4 Charge controller
      2.4.1 Charge Controller Material Analysis
      2.4.2 Charge Controller Model selection
2.5 Cabling 
2.5.1Cabling Material Analysis

3.0 Photovoltaic System Efficiency 
 This section introduces concept of photovoltaic system efficiency. Photovoltaic system efficiency is how much percent solar energy can be converted to electrical energy. This process happens between the sun and solar panel. Photovoltaic system size determines solar panel surface area, but the roof area limits photovoltaic system choice.  Photovoltaic efficiency can be calculated by using solar panel surface area, incident radiation and photovoltaic system power size (Wirth & Wiesmeier 2016). Incident radiation unit is watt per m2 and default is 1000 watt per m2(Radiative flux).
 3.1 Seneca College Building A Roof Area Measure
 3.2 Photovoltaic System Watt Selection
 3.3 Panel Surface Area Calculation
 3.4 Incident Radiation Selection
 3.5 Photovoltaic System Efficiency Calculation

4.0 Photovoltaic System Loss 
This section introduces different kinds of system losses, and how these losses can be calculated. Photovoltaic system loss means how much percent electrical energy will be lost before electrical energy is used for electrical equipment. This process happens between solar panel and electrical equipment. Loss factors include soiling losses, shading losses, sun-tracking loss. DC wiring and match losses (Maghami, Hizam, Gomes, Radzi, Rezadad, & Hajihorbani 2016). Loss factors in different locations vary because of temperature and climate difference, so loss factors will be calculated by North York loss factors data table. These loss factor values will help me to calculate actual photovoltaic system output. 
 4.1 Soiling Losses Value 
 4.2. Shading Losses Value 
 4.3 Sun-Tracking Loss Value 
 4.4.DC Wiring Loss Value 
 4.5 Mismatch Losses Value 
 4.6 Photovoltaic System Loss 
 4.7 Total Photovoltaic System Loss Calculation 

5.0 Photovoltaic System Power Output
This section introduces how to calculate photovoltaic system power output. Photovoltaic system Power actual output will be calculated by system standard watt, Toronto effective sunlight hours, battery discharge depth and photovoltaic system loss. Toronto effective sunlight hours mean how many hours photovoltaic system can effectively work. Toronto effective sunlight hours will be determined by analyzing 2017 Toronto average sunlight hours. System watt value determines output, so watt value is proportional to output value. The best battery discharge depth will be selected by using the graph which has an inverse relationship between battery discharge depth and battery life. Photovoltaic system loss has been discussed in the 4.0 chapter, and total loss value will be used to calculate photovoltaic system power output. 
5.1 Toronto Effective Sunlight Hour Statistic
5.2 Photovoltaic System Standard Power 
5.3 Total Photovoltaic System Loss Data Application
5.4 Discharge Depth Selection
5.5 Total Photovoltaic System Power Output Calculation 

6.0 Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

This section introduces  different kinds of costs and how photovoltaic system cost can be calculated. Photovoltaic system cost includes maintenance, charge control, inverter, cabling and solar panel. Maintenance cost doesn’t include situation where photovoltaic system is badly damaged. Photovoltaic system design cost doesn’t include insurance cost ( Canadian Solar Industries Association,2015). Cost unit is watt per Canadian dollar.  FIT PRICE REPORT cost is only as a reference value, and photovoltaic system cost is designed to be close to  FIT PRICE REPORT value. 
6.1 Inverter Cost 
6.2 Solar Panel Cost
       6.3.1 Photovoltaic Cell Cost
       6.3.2 Frame Cost
6.3 Maintenance Cost
       6.4.1 Clean panels
       6.4.2 Inverter Connection Maintenance
       6.4.3 Inspect Inverter Connection
6.4 Cabling Cost
6.5 Charge Controller Cost 
6.6 Battery Cost
6.7 Total Cost

7.0 Benefit Of Design Photovoltaic System At Seneca College Building A Roof

This section introduces how photovoltaic system benefits for human. Electricity energy output which is produced by photovoltaic system will be converted into economic value.  Cost of electrical energy will be very high if being produced by Toronto power plant. Economic value can be calculated by Toronto electrical price. Cost recovery time can be calculated according to photovoltaic system economic value per year.  Solar energy can emit lesser CO2 comparing to non-renewable energy (Canadian Solar Industries Association, 2016). 
7.1 Economical Benefit 
   7.1.2 Toronto Power Plant Electricity Price Statistics
   7.1.3 Economic Benefit Per Year 
   7.1.4 Time Of The Recovering Cost
7.2 Environmental Benefit

8.0 Conclusion 
Photovoltaic system will be expected to effectively work in 20 years, and  design cost can be recovered in the fifth year based on the normal condition. Photovoltaic system will provide 20 percent power supply for Seneca building A. If some unexpected situations happen, such as adverse climates, it will cause damage to photovoltaic system. Photovoltaic system life and power output will be reduced.

References/Works Cited: 
Maghami, Hizam, Gomes, Radzi, Rezadad, & Hajighorbani. (2016). Power loss due to soiling on the solar panel: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 1307-1316.
Balfour, John, Shaw, Michael, & Nash, Nicole Bremer. (2013). Advanced photovoltaic system design (The art and science of photovoltaics Advanced photovoltaic system design).
The Canadian Solar Industries Association.(August 14, 2015) 2016 FIT Price Review Submission to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) December 17, 2017 from http://www.cansia.ca/uploads/7/2/5/1/72513707/cansia_submission_-_2016_price_review.pdf
Wirth, H., Weiß, K., & Wiesmeier, C. (2016). Photovoltaic modules: Technology and reliability.
The Canadian Solar Industries Association (July 22, 2006) 
The Environmental Attributes of Solar PV in the Canadian Context
December 17, 2017 from http://energybc.ca/cache/solarpv/www.saaep.ca/EnvironmentalAttributesofSolarPV.pdf
Radiative flux .(n.d).In Wikipedia. December 17th, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiative_flux

Works to be Consulted:

Salameh, Z. (2014). Renewable energy system design.

Deambi, S. (2016). Photovoltaic System Design. CRC Press.