11. remoteness between the educational institutions and

11. Behind all national goals the
driving force predicted by the founding fathers is Education System. In 1974, a
national education meeting  was held at
Karachi, in which it was decided that the education system would work as per
the national objectives of Pakistan. Education system would be developed
according to the requirement of the people of Pakistan. Quiad-e- Azam Muhammad
Ali Jinnah said,

 “The main goal of the education system of
Pakistan was to develop national character of Pakistani generation. This
national character would contain high sense of responsibility, social
integrity, selfless service to the nation and morality on the part of the
people of Pakistan.”

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strengthening the role of education, a variety of educational commissions
and committees were made. But it is embarrassing to see that the implementation
remained very bad. This has badly affected the quality of education instead of
making any improvement. Expanding gaps and remoteness between the educational institutions
and society has also badly affected the education system. Involvement of
parents is important for the quality education of their children. First school
of any child is its house. The effective implementation of policies can not
achieved without the involvement of parents in educational process. The issue
of inequality will also be solved with this.  








– 2

Analysis Of The Problems Of Education

12.       The
education system of Pakistan despite of towering claims and plans faces the
following problems which are critically analyzed below; 

Lack of uniformity. The
system of education in Pakistan according to Iqbal (1981) is not based on
uniform principles 5.  Different
systems of education are simultaneously working in the country. The curriculum
is also not uniformed which has given birth to different schools of thoughts.
For example there is a world of difference between the attitudes of students
coming out from the public educational institutions, Deeni Madaris and the few
private elite institutions. This trend has accelerated the pace of polarization
in the society. According to Zaki (1989) this is the result of divisive
Pakistani education system 1. This system has created a huge gap among the
nation and even has deeply penetrated into the cultural veins of the nation.
The recent wave of terrorism and the increasing sectarian division are the
logical consequences of this divided system of education.  As a result of this current polarized system
of education there has occurred a great social division in the society on
political, social and economic grounds rather than unity among the people which
is cutting knee deep the ideological and social foundation of the nation
leading towards further divisions on linguistic and regional grounds which can
poetentailly damage the social cohesion and fabric of the society 7.   

Education without direction.       A sound
education system is essential for every nation of the world 8.  Every nation develops its generation on the
basis of vigorous training and education on social, political, economic and
ideological grounds. Pakistani education system due being directionless and weak
has not been able to develop and guide its people on sound political and social
grounds. There is lack of cohesion in the system and it is more prone towards
general education which does not bring any skilled manpower to the market.
Resulting there is increasing unemployment. This situation may promote sense of
deprivation among the masses 9.  Due to
this there is cultural and political unrest in the society. Besides, there is
lack of educational opportunities for science and technology. In this way the
development of thinking, reasoning and creativity of students is not being

Outdated Curriculum.       Curriculum
is the tool through which the goals of education are achieved. The curriculum
of education in Pakistan does not meet the demands of the current times. It is
an old and traditional curriculum which compels the learners to memorize
certain facts and figures without taking into consideration the reality that
education is the holistic development of an individual. It places much emphasis
on the psychology of the learner as well which cannot be negated in the process
of teaching and learning. The objectives of education must be developed the
psychological, philosophical and sociological foundations of education. The
present educational curriculum of Pakistan does not meet these modern standards
of education and research. Hence this curriculum is not promoting the interest
of the learner for practical work, research, scientific knowledge and
reflective observation, rather, it emphasizes on memory and theory 4.  

Lack of professional development of
teachers.        Training is essential for quality
performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is lack of training
opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there various teacher training
institutes in the country. These institutes are either not well resourced or
being poor run due to lack of fund and trained human resource such trainers and
administrators. There are no proper training standards in the available
training institutes around the country. Most of the training institutes have
been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being run in the teacher
education intuitions are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance
the skills, motivation and quality of teachers 1.  

d.         Lack
of quality teachers.  Teacher is the backbone of education system.
The quality of teachers in Pakistani schools is deplorable. According to a
UNESCO report, the quality of the teachers and instruction in schools is of low
quality 5. This situation is grimmer in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and
Baluchistan where even there are no teachers available in schools. Research has
found that teachers do not use new methods and strategies of teaching and
learning 3. Majority of the teachers do not know about lesson planning which
renders them incapable of dealing with various problems in the process of
teaching and learning. Teachers encourage cramming of the materials by
students. Students do not know the use of libraries in educational
institutions.  Thus the reading habits
are decreasing among the students. Teachers are highly responsible for all this
mess. It is their professional responsibility to guide the students towards
book reading. Teachers rely on lecture methods which do provide an opportunity
to students to participate in the process of education as active member. They
only note does the information and memorize this just to pass the examination.
Thus students are evaluated on the basis of memorization of facts and
information rather than performance 10.

e.         Alarming
dropouts Due to
lack of effective management of schools there is lack of discipline in schools
and other educational institutions which leads to high scale dropouts of
students. This trend has increased to such an extent that there are now 40 lac
students out of school due to drop out in Pakistan. This trend according to
Hayes (1989) is due to partly the punishment in schools, poor motivating or
unattractive school environment and partly due to weak parenting on the part of
parents 11.  Child labour and poverty
is also one of the reasons for dropouts form schools. An estimated 30 percent
of children enrolled in primary education reach to the matric level. This trend
in Pakistan has added to the low literacy rate as well 8.  

f.          System
of Examination  It is the evaluation of student’s learning.
It should be based on qualitative and quantitative techniques to
comprehensively evaluate the performance of students. The standards must ensure
validity and reliability of the procedures used in the assessment process. The
basic aim of assessment is to evaluate the performance of students. The
examination system of Pakistan is not only outdated but it also does not have
the quality to evaluate the performance of learners comprehensively.  The examination system of Pakistan tests only
the memory of students. It does not evaluate them in all aspects of learning
3.  Moreover, the examinations are
influenced by external and internal forces which have encouraged the trend of
illegal practices such as unfair means. As a result of this the examination
system promotes rote learning and cramming which negates the role of high
intellectual power of learners in the education process such as critical
thinking, reflection, analytical skills and so on. It does not measure the
actual achievements and performance of students 6.

g.         Poor
supervisory standards   The role of supervision is to explore
weaknesses or faults of teachers and showing a harsh treatment in form of
transfers to remote areas or even termination from services 12. Supervision is
the monitoring of teaching and learning. Through effective supervision
techniques the process of teaching and learning could be improved. The system
of school supervision is aimless.  There
is not only lack of supervisory activities in schools but the process of
supervision itself does not bring any positive results for teachers and
students. Supervision system is concerned with controlling and harassing the
teachers rather than providing help and guidance for improvement of performance

h.         Internal
and external influences.            Education system in Pakistan is not
free from external and internal influences. Externally the system has been made
hostage to political interference and internally it is plagued by the
bureaucratic manipulations 13.  There
is a greater favoritism and nepotism in matters of transfers, appointments and
promotions. Due to this the basic infrastructure of the education system in
Pakistan has affected 4.

j.          Lack
of resources. Education resources
such as books, libraries and physical facilities are important for smooth
running of educational process. There are despairingly no facilities of books,
libraries and reading materials in all educational institutions of the country.
Besides, there are overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teachers and ill-equipped
laboratories. This entire grim situation has resulted in a despair and low
standard education system 4.  

k.         Policy
implementation.     Since the
inception of Pakistan a number of education policies were created. There has
been lack of political will on the part of successive government to implement
the policies vigorously. The policies were highly ambitious but could not be
implemented in true letter and spirit. There has been problem of corruption,
lack of funds and gross inconsistency in successive planning on the part of
various political regimes in Pakistan. Moreover, in the overall policy
formulation teachers have been ignored. They are regarded as unimportant
element which has led to alienation between the teachers and the system of
education 1.  

l.          Low
Budgetary Allocation For Education.      Finance
is considered the engine of any system. The education system of Pakistan has
been crippled mainly due to scarce finance. The successive governments have
been giving less than 2.5 percent budget to the education sector which is not
sufficient for the growing educational needs of the nation in the present
changing times. In many of the developing regional countries such as Sri Lanka
and Bangladesh the budgetary allocation for education has increased. But in
Pakistan it is declining day by day 7.  
According to International Crisis group, Pakistan is amongst the 12
countries in the world that spent less than 2 percent of their GDP on education
sector 3. With this insufficient budgetary allocation, the country is hardly
going to meet the targets of universalization of primary education as a
signatory to the Dakar Conference’s MDG goals by 2015 and onward.  

m.        Corruption.  Among other causes, corruption is the main
contributing factor which has deeply affected the education system of Pakistan
8. There is a weak system of check and balances and accountability which has
encouraged many criminal elements to misappropriate funds, use of authority
illegally and giving unnecessary favors in allocation of funds, transfers,
promotions and decision making. 
According to Transparency International, Pakistan is included in the
list of the most corrupt countries of the world 3. Due to low salaries,
teachers in search of decent life standards and to keep their body and soul
together attempt to unfair means in the examination and matters relating to
certificates, degrees and so on.  











This paper conludes that education develops people in
all domains of life such as social, moral, spiritual, political and economic.
It is a dynamic force which enables every nation to achieve its overall
national goals. It is an established fact that countries that have developed a
sound system of education have a sound social and political system. With
effective educational systems many countries are playing a leadership role in
the comity of nations. They are enjoying their liberties and also are
politically and economically free and developed.  The education system of Pakistan has not been
able to play its role effectively in nation building. This factor has
contributed towards development of frustration among the Pakistani society. The
future generation of Pakistan is directionless due to defective education
system which has drastically failed to raise the nation on sound economic,
social, political and moral grounds.The directionless system of education is
producing forces of degree holders who are deficient in high order live skills
such as reflection, critical thinking, analysis, research and creativity. The
education system instead has focused on feeding the individuals with outdated
information and knowledge which is less relevant to the current fast changing
world. Students coming out of the Pakistani education system are theoretically
sound but have no skills to apply whatever they learn from their institutions
due to the traditional methods of teaching and learning.   Finally, this study concludes that the there
is an urgent need to reform the system of education of Pakistan and for this
purpose this study presents the following recommendations.