1. and its edge varies with mean

1.     Leaves
embedded in the form of fossils are an excellent way to predict the historic
climates by assessing the identifying the nearest current relative. For example
by examining the fossils of Nyssa and Taxodium from the Miocene era (5 million
to 23 million years ago) of the Rhine area of Germany, it can be inferred that
the climate of Germany was different than it is today. This is because the
modern relatives of these fossils are found in warm and humid environments
contrary to the cold temperatures that prevail in Germany today. US
palaeontologist Jack Wolfe studied the physical appearance of leaves and
compared them with the climatic condition around the world. Wolfe illustrated
that the shape of the leave margin and its edge varies with mean annual
temperature such that in higher temperatures, most plants have full smooth
margins of the leaves whereas toothed edges are mostly found in colder
environments. Moreover leaf size also varies with temperature variations across
environment because leaf size is directly proportional to water loss.

2.     The
protective surface called cuticle and pores called stomata on the surface of
the leaves can also infer about the environmental conditions of the obtained
fossils. For examples plant leaves with thick cuticles and less stomata on the
leaves reveal that they were growing in a hot and dry climate and thus less
stomata to avoid excessive water loss.

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3.     Holocene
summer temperature reconstructions from northern Europe based on suggest an
onset of peak summer warmth around 9,000 years ago. In a study, pollen-based
temperature reconstructions about the summer temperatures from northern Europe
revealed that summer warmth reached its peak some 9,000 years ago. The evidence
is obtained from sedimentary pollen records and are mostly affected by changes
in the proportions of tree taxa. When the tree pollen taxa of the plants such
as spruce (Picea abies) in north-eastern European Russia, pine (Pinus sylvestris)
in northern Fennoscandia and Alnus incana, Alnus glutinosa, Ulmus glabra,
Corylus avellana, Tilia cordata and Quercus robur rose, the rises in
temperature occurred simultaneously. This study has also shown that aquatic
plant macrofossil records can provide additional information about the
early-Holocene temperature evolution in northernmost Europe. Moreover it can
further suggest the development of post-glacial climatic condition using
multi-proxy data.